The Effect of Centrophenoxine on Parkinson’s Disease . Victoria Wei. Need. Taken from Rajput AH, Offord KP, Beard CM, Kurland LT. Epidemiology of parkinsonism: incidence, classification, and mortality. Ann Neurol. 1984;16:278-282. .
Taken from Rajput AH, Offord KP, Beard CM, Kurland LT. Epidemiology of parkinsonism: incidence, classification, and mortality. Ann Neurol. 1984;16:278-282.
Figure 1 The amount of Parkinson’s disease cases per 100,000 people in the United States as age increases
Figure 2 The effects of Parkinson’s disease
Figure 3 The life cycle of C. elegans
Figure 4 Lipofuscin in neurons of the human brain.
Figure 5 structure of centrophenoxide and the products of the hydrolysis- which are dimethylethanolamine (DMAE) and p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (PCPA)
Both images taken from Caldwin, Guy A.; K.A. Caldwell. “Traversing a wormhole to Combat Parkinson’s disease.” Disease Models and Mechanisms. Volume 1. pp.000-000. 2008.
Figure 9 Auto fluorescent lipofuscin pigments present in Day 7 and Day 12 C. elegans.
Gerstbrein, Beate; G. Stamatas; N. Kollias; M. Driscoll. “In vivspectrofluorimetry reveals endogenous biomarkers that report healthspan and dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Dopamine neurons are unaffected
Dopamine neurons are progressively dying
Figure 10 Degeneration of dopamine neurons
Figure 10 Table displaying effect of centrophenoxine on lipofuscin in C. elegans
Shulkin, D.J.; B.M. Zuckerman. “Spectrofluorometric analysis of the effect of centrophenoxine on lipofuscin accumulation in the nematode C. elegans.” Age. Volume 5. Pp. 50-53. 1982.
The Effects of Centrophenoxineon Parkinson’s disease in CaenorhabditiselegansMethodology
Caenorhabditis elegansham-1(ot339) obtained from the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center (CGC)
Given 6.8 mMcentrophenoxine:
No centrophenoxine is applied:
C. elegans will be cultured in the Nematode Growth Media at 20 °C , and fed Escherichia coli(op50). 6.8 mMcentrophenoxine will be applied to the NGM where the C. elegans are cultured and observed throughout lifespan.
Qualitative data will be collected on how strong both the GFP and lipofuscin fluorescence is-using a scale that ranges the strength of fluorescence.
Statistical analysis with SPSS
Picture by author
Figure 11 Culturing the C. elegans in a petri dish
E.coli + NGM with centrophenoxine + Amp + FUDR using the DAPI and GFP filter to observe amount of lipofuscin and GFP fluorescence present in both C. elegans ham-1(ot339)groups
Sutphin, George; M. Kaeberlein. “Measuring Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span on Solid Media” JOVE. 2009.
Figure 12 Age synchronization of C. elegans
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