Discursive constructions of terrorism in the people s daily and the sun before and after 9 11
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Discursive Constructions of terrorism in The People’s Daily and The Sun before and after 9.11. Yufang Qian Lancaster University ([email protected]) 13 th March, 2008. Corpora used in this research. The newspapers with highest readerships in both China and in the UK.

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Discursive Constructions of terrorism in The People’s Daily and The Sun before and after 9.11

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Discursive constructions of terrorism in the people s daily and the sun before and after 9 11

Discursive Constructions of terrorism in ThePeople’s Daily and The Sunbefore and after 9.11

Yufang Qian

Lancaster University

([email protected])

13th March, 2008


Corpora used in this research

Corpora used in this research


The newspapers with highest readerships in both china and in the uk

The newspapers with highest readerships in both China and in the UK

  • The People’s Daily

    Chinese broadsheet, with a circulation of 3 to 4 million; official newspaper of CPC

  • The Sun

    English tabloid, standing at around 3,200,000 copies daily; run by RupertMurdoch’s News corporation


Discursive constructions of terrorism in the people s daily and the sun before and after 9 11

Corpus analytical techniques:

  • frequency

  • keyword

  • clusters

  • collocations

  • concordances

  • discourse prosodies.

    Corpus Analysis Tool:

  • Wordsmith Tools 4 (Scott 2004)


Collocational network

Collocational network

  • Borrowed similar technique from

    McEnery (2005) & Baker (2005)

  • Basic criteria for creation of collocational networks in this study:

    • Calculating MI scores in WS for the word terrorists (in each of the three subdivisions in the STC and the PTC

    • The lexical words in the strongest 20 collocates of terrorists in the PTC while the strongest 50 collocates in the STC

    • Second order of collocates and ‘dead end’ collocates

    • Slightly different rules for the words terror, terrorism, terrorist, terrorists


Collocational networks 1 collocational network of terrorists before 9 11 in the stc

Collocational networks(1)Collocational network of terrorists before 9.11 in the STC

chief

cops

terror

last

police

shot

gun

murderers

said

loyalist

force

group

republican

bomb

terrorists

convicted

dissident

freed

Irish

IRA

terrorist

threat

arms

attack


2 collocational network of terrorists after 9 11 in stc

(2)Collocational network of terrorists after 9.11 in STC

fight

extremist

terrorism

raising

suicide

threat

group

funds

Islamic

people

America

suspected

killed

Palestinian

terror

leader

IRA

terrorists

fanatics

Israeli

Al Qa’ida

Taliban

September

fighters

network

terrorist

Osama bin Laden

Afghanistan

chief

fears

atrocities

evil

war


Collocational networks 1 collocational network of terrorists before 9 11 in the stc1

Collocational networks(1)Collocational network of terrorists before 9.11 in the STC

chief

cops

terror

last

shot

police

gun

murderers

said

loyalist

force

group

republican

bomb

terrorists

convicted

dissident

freed

Irish

IRA

terrorist

threat

arms

attack


2 collocational network of terrorists after 9 11 in stc1

(2)Collocational network of terrorists after 9.11 in STC

extremist

terrorism

fight

raising

suicide

group

threat

funds

Islamic

people

America

suspected

killed

Palestinian

terror

leader

IRA

terrorists

fanatics

Israeli

Al Qa’ida

Taliban

September

fighters

network

terrorist

Osama bin Laden

Afghanistan

chief

fears

atrocities

evil

war


3 collocational network of terrorists before 9 11 in the ptc

组织

organization

巴勒斯坦

Palestine

极端主义

extremism

事件

incident

势力

forces

导弹

missiles

合作

co-operation

恐怖

terror

宗教

religion

共同

common

国际

international

民族

nations

安全

security

袭击

attack

打击

fight

形式

forms

中亚

Mid-Asia

主权

sovereignty

恐怖主义

terrorism

分裂主义separatism

国家

country

关系

relationship

支持

support

冲突

conflict

恐怖分子terrorists

发展

development

独联体

CIS

武装

armed

活动

activities

西方

The West

塞族

Serbs

以色列

Israel

极端分子

extremist

阿族

Albanian

联合国

the UN

行动

action

维和

peacekeeping

部队

troops

科索沃

Kosovo

车臣

Chechen

军事

military

南联盟

FRY

地区

region

非法

illegal

Russia

战争

war

政府

government

问题

problem

(3)Collocational network of terrorists before 9.11 in the PTC


4 collocational network of terrorists after 9 11 in the ptc

自杀

suicide

事件incident

表示

said

发生

take place

袭击

attack

9.11

布什

Bush

行动

action

恐怖

terror

政府government

美国

America

势力

forces

恐怖分子

terrorists

总统

president

东突

East Turkistan

活动activities

阿富汗Afghanistan

组织organization

分裂主义

separatism

基地

Al Qa’ida

军事military

打击

fight

建立

set up

国际

international

问题

problem

训练

training

拉登

Laden

恐怖主义terrorism

共同

common

合作

cooperation

反对

oppose

形式

form

成员

member

支持

support

(4)Collocational network of terrorists after 9.11 in the PTC


Findings

Findings

  • Changes before and after 9.11 in the STC

    Organizations (e.g. dissident, loyalist & Republican)  individual name (e.g. Osama bin Laden)

    No religion-believed related words  collocates relating to religion (e.g. Islamic, fanatics&extremist)

    Discourse of crime (e.g. police, crime& imprisonment)  discourse of war (e.g. war, fighters, chief, suicide (bomber) &killed)

    Local threat of terrorism (IRA, Irish, Republican &loyalist) world wide terrorist threat (e.g. network, suspected, raising&funds)

  • Changes before and after 9.11 in the PTC

    Russia, Middle East, the Kosovo war, military conflicts and religion  America and Al Qa’ida

    Discourse of armed conflict discourse of military combat


Discursive constructions of terrorism in the people s daily and the sun before and after 9 11

  • Differences between the STC and the PTC

    The most distinguishing feature of the two Chinese collocational networks is that all except one of the collocates are keywords, suggesting that the choice of words on terrorism in thePTC is more relatively stable  than the STC.

    None of the collocates reference crimes, nor the names of leaders and groups in the network of terroristsin PTC.

    There are no evaluative or subjective words appeared in the People’s Daily networks, whereas The Sun contained words such as evil, fanatics and extremist.

    There are more words referring to war after 9.11 in the STC while there is no war as collocate in the collocational network after 9.11 in the PTC

  • Commonality between the STC and the PTC

    In terms of descriptive content, there are some commonality between two newspapers after 9.11 (e.g. fight, America, Al Qa’ida, Afghanistan, suicide, 9.11 & Laden).


Further work

Further work

  • Looking at context:

    1. convergence in the networks

    2. concordance lines

  • Looking at keywords:

    1. key verbs

    2. key adjectives

    3. key modal verbs

  • Interpretation of discursive constructions of terrorism manipulated in both newspapers


Conclusion s

Conclusions

  • The technique of collocational networks helps us understand more clearly the discursive constructions of terrorism in both newspapers.

  • The discourses around terrorism changed before and after 9.11.

  • The discourses around terrorism varied between two newspapers.


Discursive constructions of terrorism in the people s daily and the sun before and after 9 11

Thank you!


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