Best Practices in School to College Alignment: Early Assessment Program

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. BACKGROUND. 2. 3. Ways to Demonstrate English and Math Proficiency. SAT:550 or higher on Critical Reading and MathematicsACT:24 or higher on English and 23 or higher on math portionAP:3 or higher on AP Language and Composition or Composition and Literature; 3 or higher on AP Calculus or StatisticsEAP:College Ready on English and College Ready/Conditionally Ready.

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Best Practices in School to College Alignment: Early Assessment Program

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1. Best Practices in School to College Alignment: Early Assessment Program

2. BACKGROUND 2

3. 3 Ways to Demonstrate English and Math Proficiency SAT: 550 or higher on Critical Reading and Mathematics ACT: 24 or higher on English and 23 or higher on math portion AP: 3 or higher on AP Language and Composition or Composition and Literature; 3 or higher on AP Calculus or Statistics EAP: College Ready on English and College Ready/Conditionally Ready

4. 4 Goal of the CSU Board of Trustees Reduce the percentage of those who need remediation in English and mathematics to 10% of the students entering the CSU

5. 5 Percentage of First-Time Freshmen Entering with College- level English Proficiency

6. 6 Percentage of First-Time Freshmen Entering with College-level Mathematics Proficiency

7. 7 Failure to Meet English and Math Proficiency Students cannot enroll in many required CSU college classes until they meet the requirement; They must spend time taking remedial English and math classes during their freshman year until they meet the requirement; They will graduate later because they get no degree credit for these remedial classes; They may have to pay additional charges for these classes; and If they do not demonstrate proficiency by the end of the freshman year, they will be disenrolled.

8. COLLABORATION 8

9. 9 The Problem: Disconnects between K-12 and Higher Education Lack of agreement on college-readiness standards Placement exam standards unclear to high school teachers Senior year could be used more effectively to prepare students academically for college.

10. 10 Collaboration California State Board of Education California Department of Education California State University

11. 11 Collaboration CDE sponsored legislation to allow students in grade 11 to be able to authorize the release of their results to send to CSU as well as for CDE to release the results to CSU CST answer document was modified to allow the students to acknowledge that that the EAP results could be sent to CSU EAP results were added to the grade 11 CST student report (2007) Parents and students receive the EAP results at the same time they receive the CST results on the STAR report form

12. 12 Collaboration CDE allows CSU staff to review the CSTs to select items for EAP CST answer document was lengthened to include 15 additional EAP items in each content area California Community Colleges now authorized to use EAP for placement beginning 2010 CSU and Community Colleges will have access to students who do not score proficient

13. 13 Modifications in ELM Placement Test Math faculty reassessed ELM in relation to campus remediation programs and to CSU GE-Breadth courses in mathematics concepts and quantitative reasoning May 2000, CSU Math Council proposed that ELM be modified to strengthen CSU’s commitment to strong mathematics requirements for FTF By reemphasizing the admission requirements of 3 years of high school math, and By focusing ELM on content of these courses most appropriate to basic GE-Breadth courses in math concepts and quantitative reasoning Continue to assess student proficiency through intermediate algebra, Math Council recommended that the emphasis of ELM be shifted from algebraic symbol manipulation skills toward problem solving skills, number sense, graph interpretation, and the skills most relevant to all students entering CSU Greater emphasis on data analysis, and smaller proportion of pure algebra problems than on current test. To measure conceptual understanding and problem solving ability rather than algorithms.Greater emphasis on data analysis, and smaller proportion of pure algebra problems than on current test. To measure conceptual understanding and problem solving ability rather than algorithms.

14. EAP (Early Assessment Program) 14

15. 15 Commitment EAP was designed to better align academic achievement and expectations between K-12 and higher education to decrease the number of incoming college students who required remediation in English and/or mathematics to encourage students to use their senior year in high school more effectively Piloted in 2003 Implemented in 2004 Administered to high school juniors

16. 16 Components of EAP 11th grade testing Supplemental high school preparation in 12th grade available Teacher/administrator professional development Parent/family communication Preservice teacher preparation 11th grade testing Early assessment of college readiness Communication of score reports to counselors, students, families, and parents Supplemental high school preparation in 12th grade Counsel students to enroll in appropriate English and mathematics classes and activities Teacher professional development 11th grade testing Early assessment of college readiness Communication of score reports to counselors, students, families, and parents Supplemental high school preparation in 12th grade Counsel students to enroll in appropriate English and mathematics classes and activities Teacher professional development

17. 17 EAP Test Voluntary Administered in Spring of 11th grade with California Standards Test Contains 15 additional multiple-choice items in English and math Essay required in English Selected items from CST and additional EAP items (including essay in English) are scored to determine student readiness for college English and/or mathematics English CSU questions on CST are from State Board Standards Reading comprehension and literary response Writing strategies Written essay Student explains author’s argument and extent to which student agrees with author’s analysis and conclusion Math CSU questions on CST are from State Board Standards Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II English CSU questions on CST are from State Board Standards Reading comprehension and literary response Writing strategies Written essay Student explains author’s argument and extent to which student agrees with author’s analysis and conclusion Math CSU questions on CST are from State Board Standards Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II

18. 18 EAP Results Students receive the CST score report, which also indicates whether they are College ready at end of grade 11 Exempt from taking CSU’s placement tests Exempt from remediation upon enrollment Not college ready yet Advised to take mathematics in 12th grade Advised to take 12th grade Expository Reading/Writing class Access CSU’s English and Math for Success Web sites for additional opportunities to improve English and math skills Must take CSU’s placement tests College Ready Student demonstrates readiness for college level coursework in English Language Arts and/or mathematics and is exempt from further CSU testing. Student demonstrates readiness for college level coursework in mathematics at that point in time,; However, successful completion of a senior year math experience is required to retain the exemption. Students will be required to do further work to maintain their skills in mathematics to retain exemption. Another math class with Algebra II as a prerequisite Monitored, online mathematics e-learning program, such as ALEKS Not College Ready Student does not demonstrate readiness for college level coursework in English Language Arts and/or mathematics and is encouraged to participate in a senior year experience in either or both areas. Incomplete Student did not complete a sufficient amount of one or both exams to render a designation. Exemptions may be gained through other tests, e.g., AP, SAT, ACT, IB, etc.College Ready Student demonstrates readiness for college level coursework in English Language Arts and/or mathematics and is exempt from further CSU testing. Student demonstrates readiness for college level coursework in mathematics at that point in time,; However, successful completion of a senior year math experience is required to retain the exemption. Students will be required to do further work to maintain their skills in mathematics to retain exemption. Another math class with Algebra II as a prerequisite Monitored, online mathematics e-learning program, such as ALEKS Not College Ready Student does not demonstrate readiness for college level coursework in English Language Arts and/or mathematics and is encouraged to participate in a senior year experience in either or both areas. Incomplete Student did not complete a sufficient amount of one or both exams to render a designation. Exemptions may be gained through other tests, e.g., AP, SAT, ACT, IB, etc.

19. 19 Benefits to Students Early warning Adjust senior-year coursework to prepare for college-level courses Earn an exemption from CSU-required English and/or mathematics placement tests Avoid investing time and money in college remediation courses that do not count toward a baccalaureate degree Goal of Board of Trustees Reduce the need for remediation in English and mathematics to 10% by 2007 Historic collaboration with California State Board of Education California Department of Education California State University Early warning Identify students before their senior year who need to do additional work in English and/or mathematics before entering the CSU Identify student readiness Inform students, families, and high schools of students’ readiness for college-level work in English and mathematics 12th grade interventions Motivate students to take needed steps in 12th grade to assure readiness Key EAP Development Principles Identify and develop common expectations of college readiness standards Align collegiate readiness expectations with K-12 standards and assessments Minimize additional tests or testing time Cost-effectiveness Reduce students’ need for remediation Improve path to the baccalaureate degree Goal of Board of Trustees Reduce the need for remediation in English and mathematics to 10% by 2007 Historic collaboration with California State Board of Education California Department of Education California State University Early warning Identify students before their senior year who need to do additional work in English and/or mathematics before entering the CSU Identify student readiness Inform students, families, and high schools of students’ readiness for college-level work in English and mathematics 12th grade interventions Motivate students to take needed steps in 12th grade to assure readiness Key EAP Development Principles Identify and develop common expectations of college readiness standards Align collegiate readiness expectations with K-12 standards and assessments Minimize additional tests or testing time Cost-effectiveness Reduce students’ need for remediation Improve path to the baccalaureate degree

20. CONTENT SKILLS ASSESSED 20

21. 21 What is Assessed in English Selected CST questions are those that parallel CSU proficiency expectations, plus 15 additional items and essay Purpose of the additional items is to better assess analytical reading skills, composing skills, and writing proficiency

22. 22 EAP: What is Assessed in Math Selected CST questions are those that parallel CSU proficiency expectations, plus 15 additional items selected by CSU math faculty CSU questions on CST are from State Board Standards However, CSU does not cover Proof, Trig Functions, Probability, and Logarithms Important topics that need to be learned but not essential skills for success in GE math Purpose: measure depth, not breadth of content knowledge Depth important because CSU grants exemptions from placement exam

23. 23 Math Content Specifications More emphasis on problem solving mathematical thinking Less emphasis on recall of formulae than current test Much of the content unchanged, but notable additions “numbers and data” category And deletions Probability, Proof, Trig Functions, and Logarithms Content continued to focus on traditional high school mathematics required for admission to the CSU, e.g., Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II

24. 24 Math Content Specifications Revised specifications place more emphasis on geometry, especially the connections between algebra and geometry Greater emphasis on data analysis Smaller proportion of pure algebra problems than on current test Modified ELM measures conceptual understanding and problem solving ability more than easily forgotten facts and algorithms

25. INTERVENTIONS 25

26. 26 How CSU Supports Students to Gain Proficiency in English and Math Advise students and families on how to meet CSU expectations Provide educational tools and planning resources to help students improve their English and math skills CSU English and Math Success Web sites Provide teacher professional development programs Support high school adoption of specific curricula ERWC Specialized support for alternative math offerings Twelfth Grade Expository Reading and Writing Course Aligned with English-Language Arts Content Standards Helps prepare students for college-level English Developed by CSU English faculty and high school teachers Lessons based on non-fiction and fiction texts Engages students in a study of rhetoric and composition Emphasizes in-depth study of expository, analytical, and argumentative writing Deepens students’ critical reading, writing, and thinking skills Approved to fulfill the B requirement of the A-G subject area requirements CSU English Success Website Customized information for students, teachers, and counselors Checklists and guidance tips for parents (English and Spanish) Personalized roadmaps with step-by-step advise and e-mail reminders Advice on EPT requirements Online English resources for students, parents, counselors, and teachers CSU English Success Website Online multiple-choice module offering two practice EPT exams Diagnostic Writing Service (DWS) www.csuenglishsuccess.org CSU Math Success Website Diagnostic services (MDTP) Online e-learning mathematics tutorial (ALEKS) Live online math tutoring 10-, 50-, 114- online ELM practice problems Roadmap advises students how to prepare math skills www.csumathsuccess.org Professional Development in English Provides teachers with skills necessary to teach the 12th Grade Expository Reading and Writing Course Reading Institutes for Academic Preparation offered through selected CSU campuses for teachers in grades 9-12 in all subject areas to improve capacity to teach reading/academic literacy across the curriculum Twelfth Grade Expository Reading and Writing Course Aligned with English-Language Arts Content Standards Helps prepare students for college-level English Developed by CSU English faculty and high school teachers Lessons based on non-fiction and fiction texts Engages students in a study of rhetoric and composition Emphasizes in-depth study of expository, analytical, and argumentative writing Deepens students’ critical reading, writing, and thinking skills Approved to fulfill the B requirement of the A-G subject area requirements CSU English Success Website Customized information for students, teachers, and counselors Checklists and guidance tips for parents (English and Spanish) Personalized roadmaps with step-by-step advise and e-mail reminders Advice on EPT requirements Online English resources for students, parents, counselors, and teachers CSU English Success Website Online multiple-choice module offering two practice EPT exams Diagnostic Writing Service (DWS) www.csuenglishsuccess.org CSU Math Success Website Diagnostic services (MDTP) Online e-learning mathematics tutorial (ALEKS) Live online math tutoring 10-, 50-, 114- online ELM practice problems Roadmap advises students how to prepare math skills www.csumathsuccess.org Professional Development in English Provides teachers with skills necessary to teach the 12th Grade Expository Reading and Writing Course Reading Institutes for Academic Preparation offered through selected CSU campuses for teachers in grades 9-12 in all subject areas to improve capacity to teach reading/academic literacy across the curriculum

27. 27 Expository Reading and Writing Course Developed by CSU English faculty and high school teachers Aligned with ELA content standards for 11th and 12th grades Structured around assignment template addressing reading and writing Engages students in a study of rhetoric and composition Enables students to read and write academic prose effectively and strategically

28. 28 Expository Reading and Writing Course Increases students’ mastery of academic language Emphasizes in-depth study of expository, analytical, and argumentative writing Deepens students’ critical reading, writing, and thinking skills Approved to fulfill the college prep requirement for English Not intended as an honors or remedial course

29. 29 Preliminary Evaluation of Expository Reading and Writing Course Effect on Teachers Experienced strong success with curricular materials Found material academically rigorous and engaging Systemic changes in teaching Observed that . . . Depth, rigor, and intensity contributed to strong, positive outcomes for students College expectations increased Students experienced increased confidence as writers and readers Worked well for English language learners

30. 30 Preliminary Evaluation of Expository Reading and Writing Course Effect on Students Increased skills in reading comprehension, expository writing, and independent thinking Analyzed text material more thoroughly Reexamined ideas in text Read text with different/multiple purposes Evaluated and analyzed strength of writers’ arguments Read more, including more complex texts by choice Applied skills learned with expository texts with traditional English language arts texts Students enrolled in course using modules scored higher on EPT than students in traditional classes

31. 31 English Success Home Page

32. High School Math Courses Most high schools offer courses beyond Algebra II that lead to or include calculus, e.g., Trig, Solid Geometry, or math analysis Recently, some high schools include statistics, but not always with Algebra II or as a prerequisite Senior Year Experience: Algebra II Committee of 3 math faculty of ELM Development Committee 10 School Districts submitted these non-traditional courses for approval for senior year 32

33. 33 Math Success Homepage

34. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ENGLISH 34

35. 35 Professional Development in English Provides teachers with skills necessary to teach the Expository Reading and Writing Course Reading Institutes for Academic Preparation offered through selected CSU campuses for teachers in grades 9-12 in all subject areas to improve capacity to teach reading/academic literacy across the curriculum

36. 36 Professional Development in English Offered by County Offices of Education and the CSU to high school English teachers Heightens teachers’ awareness of college-level English expectations Emphasizes teaching expository text and rhetorical analysis

37. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN MATHEMATICS 37

38. 38 Professional Development in Mathematics Offered by County Offices of Education and the CSU to high school math teachers Increases teachers’ knowledge and understanding of EAP program Examines student performance on ELM to identify and analyze patterns of student strengths and weaknesses Increases teachers’ knowledge and understanding of options that exist to increase and sustain student math skills

39. Math PD - Intent Did not include development and dissemination of a course like Expository Reading and Writing Course (12th grade) Did not support curricular changes as in English Designed to get more students to take more and higher levels of math No systematic and supported evaluation of outcomes 39

40. High School Math Courses Approved by CSU for 12th Grade Finite Mathematics, An Applied Approach A Survey of Mathematics with Application Functional Analysis Pre-Calculus Statistics EAP Advanced Algebra Discrete Math These choices exist purely because of EAP. 40

41. High School Math Courses Most high schools offer courses beyond Algebra II that lead to or include calculus, e.g., Trig, Solid Geometry, or math analysis Recently, some high schools include statistics, but not always with Algebra II or as a prerequisite Senior Year Experience: Algebra II Committee of 3 math faculty of ELM Development Committee 10 School Districts submitted these non-traditional courses for approval for senior year 41

42. EAP SCORE RESULTS 42

43. 43 Spring 2008 Results English EAP 352,943 of 446,153 (eligible juniors took English EAP (79%), compared to 342,348 (78%) in 2007 17% college ready, compared to 16% in 2007 Mathematics EAP 147,885 of 209,873 eligible juniors took Math EAP (70%), compared to 141,648 (70%) in 2007 55% college ready, the same percentage as in 2007 (College Ready: 13% (19,442); Conditional: 42% (62,660)

44. Meaning? Overall, changes in math proficiency of entering freshmen are minimal 1% over 3 years Among means to become exempt from taking the CSU Entry Level Math Exam (ELM) , percent who qualify on EAP increased from 6.5% to 8.2% A few more scored “ready” on EAP A few more who scored “conditional ready” on EAP took 12th grade math class and moved to ready 44

45. Meaning? While percentages of students taking the EAP have decreased, the actual number of test takers has increased each year. An increase in “ready” scores among summative math students is offset by a comparable reduction in “conditional ready” scores. Performance appears to have improved more at the summative math level than at Algebra II 45

46. RESOURCES 46

47. Web-Based Resources CSU Developed CSU Math Success Website (www.csumathsuccess.org) – practice tests with personalized feedback, customized Roadmap advising tool, e-mail reminders about preparing for the CSU, student testimonial videos explaining the importance of preparing for college-level math. ALEKS Personalized Online ELM Exam Tutorial (http://www.csumathsuccess.org/exam_prep) – intelligent tutor software, costs $35, covers only those topics that appear on the CSU ELM Exam CSU EAP Math Professional Development for HS Teachers (http://pd.csusuccess.org/) – Online EAP math professional development for CA middle and high school math teachers CSU English Success Website (www.csuenglishsuccess.org) – practice tests with personalized feedback, customized Roadmap advising tool, e-mail reminders about preparing for the CSU, student testimonial videos explaining the importance of preparing for college-level English. 47

48. Web-Based Resources CSU Developed 5. Calibrated Peer Review (http://www.csuenglishsuccess.org/practice_ept_essays) – online essay writing tool that allows students to respond  to retired EPT essay prompts and engage in an online peer review process using the EPT scoring rubric. 6. Online EAP Status Check (http://www.csusuccess.org/eap_results) – service that allows high school seniors to determine their EAP status and receive customized advice for becoming college-ready. 48

49. Web-Based Resources CSU Developed 7. EAP STAR Report Website (http://www.csusuccess.org/star) – website that explains all EAP statuses and provides suggestions for becoming college-ready. 8. EAP 11th Grade Portal (http://www.csusuccess.org/juniors) – website showing the importance of participating in the EAP which encourages students to submit their e-mail address in order to be alerted when their EAP results are ready. 49

50. 50 Resources Early Assessment Program Home Page: www.calstate.edu/eap Math Success Website: www.csumathsuccess.org English Success Website: www.csuenglishsuccess.org ALEKS ELM Tutorial: www.csumathsuccess.org/alekslink Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): www.calstate.edu/eap/documents/eapfaqfinal/pdf California Just for the Kids www.jftk-ca.org California Department of Education www.cde.ca.gov

51. 51 Summary EAP helps California students to prepare academically for college or the workforce Reduces need for remediation Improves path to degree

52. 52 QUESTIONS

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