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S.H.A.R.P. S lender H ypervelocity A erothermodynamic R esearch P robe. SHARP genesis. development of new UHTC’s, ultra high temperature ceramics shingles on shuttle max temp- 3000 F new UHTC max temp- 5000 F result- sharp leading edge profiles are now possible. SHARP profile.

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S h a r p

S.H.A.R.P.

Slender Hypervelocity Aerothermodynamic Research Probe


Sharp genesis

SHARP genesis

  • development of new UHTC’s, ultra high temperature ceramics

    • shingles on shuttle

      • max temp- 3000 F

    • new UHTC

      • max temp- 5000 F

  • result- sharp leading edge profiles are now possible


Sharp profile

SHARP profile

  • advantages

    • more efficient atmospheric exit and re-entry

    • better cross-range capability

      • (wider range of re-entry angles)

    • minimized radio blackout during re-entry

  • disadvantages

    • generates extremely high temperature at the sharp edge/tip


Sharp future

SHARP future

  • Next generation space shuttles- X-33

  • nosecones

    • re-entry vehicles

    • launch vehicles (rockets & boosters)


Sharp projects

SHARP PROJECTS

  • B-series

    • sharp nosecones

    • B1 re-entry vehicle already launched (B2 near launch)

  • S-series

    • university & small business partnership

    • test a knife edge geometry

    • 4 launches

  • L-series

    • full size

    • 2 launches

    • UHTC test


Sharp s series

SHARP S-series

  • Atmospheric re-entry vehicles with knife edge profiles

    • reaches Mach 3.5

    • UHTC not required

  • prototype sounding rocket launch vehicle

    • halfway to near earth orbit

S4


S1 launch schedule

S1 launch schedule

  • Orion class rocket launches

    • 4,000 lb thrust, 5g vibrations

  • S1 deploys at apogee

    • 270,000 ft

    • data acquisition begins

  • fin-tube stabilizer jettisoned

    • 150,000 ft

    • primary data capture

      • temperature, pressure, accelerations

  • S1 re-enters atmosphere

  • S1 parachute deployed

    • 20,000 ft

  • rocket and S1 recovery via helicopter


Sharp s series goals

SHARP S-series goals

  • Create working relationships between NASA, universities and small businesses

  • gather aero & thermodynamic data on the SHARP-S profile

    • compare with computer simulations

  • Provide data for the L-series

    • S-series serve as prototypes

    • same geometry, ~ 2x size

    • UHTC equipped (mach 20 vs. 3.5)


Sharp s program timeline

SHARP-S program timeline


Sharp s series groups

SHARP S-series GROUPS

NASA Ames Research Center

project co-ordinator, aero/thermodynamics

Montana State University

re-entry vehicle structure

Stanford University

re-entry vehicle avionics

Wickman Spacecraft & Propulsion

launch vehicle & site


S h a r p

MSU SHARP TEAM

PI: Dr. Doug Cairns

MSGC: Dr. Bill Hiscock

manager: Aaron Sears

consultant: Will Ritter

students: Mike Hornemann

Kevin Amende

Cindy Heath

Crystal Colliflower

Dustin Cram


Msu research groups

MSU research groups

  • Montana Space Grant Consortium

    • federally funded program which disperses grant money to space oriented projects

  • Composites Research Group

    • co-directors: Dr. Cairns, Dr. Mandell

    • material characterization, structures & manufacturing

    • wind energy, aerospace


Nasa designated responsibilities

NASA designated responsibilities

  • Design and build the S1-4 re-entry vehicles using composite materials

  • integrate the structure with:

    • avionics (Stanford)

    • sounding rocket (Wickman Spacecraft)

  • low operating budget

    • faster, better, cheaper motto

    • $ 50k/year budget


S1 shape

S1 shape

  • S1 dimensions supplied by NASA

17”

4.4”

39.5”

6.6”

11.3o


Design

mold

peripherals

assembly

4 part design

ProE design

FEM analysis

design

manufacturing

* all design, analysis and manufacturing performed

in-house at MSU


S1 design constraints

S1 design constraints

results

- epoxy matrix

- metal tip (aluminum/steel)

-composite shell w solid tip

- carbon/epoxy

  • Withstand high temperatures

    • 600 F in shell (one use)

    • 1000+ F at tip

  • lightweight

  • CG in front of center of pressure

  • smooth aerodynamic surface

  • withstand dynamic pressures of 10 psi with minor deflections

  • unlimited systems integrations

  • provide locations & mounting for

    • pressure and temperature sensors

    • avionics components


S1 design

S1 design

  • 4 part design

    • shell

    • component mounting frame

      • parachute

    • tip

    • base

  • peripheral & equipment

    • shell mold

    • fin-tube


S1 design1

S1 design

fin-tube

shell

(mounting frame internal)

base plate sensor arrangement

tip

S1 with fin-tube drag stabilizer

cutaway view of internal mounting frame

(spar system)


Shell design

shell design

  • Provides the aerodynamic surface and serves as a main structural member

    • only surface interruptions are 6, ~1/16” holes for pressure and temperature sensors

  • One piece

    • only joint along aero-surface at tip interface

    • pressure bladder manufactured

  • IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy laminate

    • ~ 0.10” thick


Shell spar structure

shell/spar structure

  • Integrates the component mounting frame into the vehicle structure

  • spar system is removable for unlimited avionics & systems integration

spars


Spar system

spar system

  • 2 axial, 3 lateral

    • carbon/epoxy plates

    • mechanically connected

  • guided in by L-rails bonded into shell

    • spars mechanically attach into L’s for unlimited systems integration

  • 4th lateral spar of aluminum

  • sensor board mount on left axial


Structural design drivers

structural design drivers

  • aerodynamic pressures

    • ~ 10 psi at Mach 3.5

  • launch vibrations

    • as Orion class sounding rocket

    • 6-g random vibration

  • heat

    • 600 F at tip/shell interface

    • +1000 F at tip

  • component space allocation

    • forward CG required advanced placement of heaviest components

    • governed possible placements of spars


S h a r p

hypersonic pressure analysis

(inches)

(02/±45/903)s hoop = 90, axial = 0, E1 = 20 Msi (~65% Vf, 0.058 lbf/ft3), t = 0.09”

hypersonic skin pressure = 2.78 psi (Mach 3.5, 85,000 ft)


S h a r p

natural frequency analysis

mode 1: 56 hz

mode 2: 111 hz

mode 3 : 180 hz

(02/±45/903)s hoop = 90, axial = 0, E1 = 20 Msi (~65% Vf, 0.058 lbf/ft3), t = 0.09”

(base plate constrained boundary condition)


Tip interface

tip & interface

  • design drivers

    • forward the CG location for aerodynamic stability

    • temperature resistance

    • pull-off (drag difference) force

    • smooth external interface

  • features

    • aluminum

      • better machining control

    • 1/2” lip for shell overhang

      • improves transition and connection

    • steel parachute line mounts

      • better impact/fracture properties than composites


Tip interface sketch

tip interface sketch

mounting bolt

steel mounting plate

tip

link

parachute line

lip

retention cup

epoxy

shell

epoxy gap sanded flush


Tip interface1

tip & interface


S1 sensor locations

S1 sensor locations

Pressure (8)

Temperature (4)

  • The


Parachute specifications

parachute specifications

  • manufacturer

    • Rocketman recovery parachutes

    • Ky Michaelson

  • specifications

    • R7 pro experimental

    • 2.12 lbs

    • reinforced panels

    • specially formed canvas deployment bag


Parachute deployment

parachute deployment

  • Deployment mechanism

    • single bay door

      • hinged

      • latched by #2 nylon bolt

    • black powder charge pushes parachute through door

  • Altitude

    • 20,000 ft


Shell mold

shell mold

Top half of mold

Male preform plug


Mold design

mold design

result

Constraint

  • Must be able to withstand temperatures up to 400F for curing of the resin

  • Aerodynamic surface shape requires tight tolerances

  • Seam lines kept to a minimum

  • Must be able to withstand pressures up to 80 psi

  • requires a metal mold

  • CNC provides tightest tolerances

  • machined from solid blocks


Mold design1

P

Aluminum

- lower weight & thermal mass

- no warpage during machining

Steel

- better damage tolerance

O

mold design

  • Negative of S1 model

  • All dimensions to .0001 inch

  • ProE IGES to MasterCam for CNC

  • Equivalent commercial mold cost

    • $ 35,000

  • Estimated MSU mold cost

    • materials: $ 1,600

    • labor: $ 5,000

    • tooling: $ 500


S h a r p

plug

  • CNC machined from ProE model

    • Accurate shape insures that pre-form will fit snugly into the mold

    • The plug is .25 inch smaller than real sharp in all directions


Manufacturing tip

manufacturing - tip

current tip pic in HAAS


Composites manufacturing

composites manufacturing

1. preforming

2. curing

(w pressure &/or vacuum)

3. trim & assembly


Prototyping

prototyping

  • Aid troubleshooting

    • design methodology

    • details

  • 2 prototypes (full scale)

    • G1

      • glass polyester/shell, wood tip

      • S1 deployment test

    • G2

      • glass polyester/shell

      • avionics mounting trouble shooting


S1 structure parts

S1 structure parts


Assembly integration

assembly & integration

  • first full assembly at Stanford for flight certification tests

  • total weight 44.5 lbs.

  • CG: 52% of length


Flight certification tests

flight certification tests

  • mass properties *!

    • center of gravity

    • moment of inertia

  • vibration loading (shake test) *!

    • sine sweep (natural frequency)

    • random vibrations (launch loading)

  • deployment tests,

  • altitude chamber (Stanford only)

* performed at NASA Ames Research Center

! passed


Moment of inertia

moment of inertia

roll

CA DAQ- proximity detector

yaw


Shake testing

shake testing

yawwise shake

pitchwise shake

CA DAQ- acceloremator w FFT


S1 status

Launch

TBA

Avionics

software at 90% complete

altitude chamber test

Rocket

static fire- 10/18/00

weld failure at 4 seconds

good propellant fire

S1 status


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