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S.H.A.R.P. S lender H ypervelocity A erothermodynamic R esearch P robe. SHARP genesis. development of new UHTC’s, ultra high temperature ceramics shingles on shuttle max temp- 3000 F new UHTC max temp- 5000 F result- sharp leading edge profiles are now possible. SHARP profile.

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S.H.A.R.P.

Slender Hypervelocity Aerothermodynamic Research Probe


SHARP genesis

  • development of new UHTC’s, ultra high temperature ceramics

    • shingles on shuttle

      • max temp- 3000 F

    • new UHTC

      • max temp- 5000 F

  • result- sharp leading edge profiles are now possible


SHARP profile

  • advantages

    • more efficient atmospheric exit and re-entry

    • better cross-range capability

      • (wider range of re-entry angles)

    • minimized radio blackout during re-entry

  • disadvantages

    • generates extremely high temperature at the sharp edge/tip


SHARP future

  • Next generation space shuttles- X-33

  • nosecones

    • re-entry vehicles

    • launch vehicles (rockets & boosters)


SHARP PROJECTS

  • B-series

    • sharp nosecones

    • B1 re-entry vehicle already launched (B2 near launch)

  • S-series

    • university & small business partnership

    • test a knife edge geometry

    • 4 launches

  • L-series

    • full size

    • 2 launches

    • UHTC test


SHARP S-series

  • Atmospheric re-entry vehicles with knife edge profiles

    • reaches Mach 3.5

    • UHTC not required

  • prototype sounding rocket launch vehicle

    • halfway to near earth orbit

S4


S1 launch schedule

  • Orion class rocket launches

    • 4,000 lb thrust, 5g vibrations

  • S1 deploys at apogee

    • 270,000 ft

    • data acquisition begins

  • fin-tube stabilizer jettisoned

    • 150,000 ft

    • primary data capture

      • temperature, pressure, accelerations

  • S1 re-enters atmosphere

  • S1 parachute deployed

    • 20,000 ft

  • rocket and S1 recovery via helicopter


SHARP S-series goals

  • Create working relationships between NASA, universities and small businesses

  • gather aero & thermodynamic data on the SHARP-S profile

    • compare with computer simulations

  • Provide data for the L-series

    • S-series serve as prototypes

    • same geometry, ~ 2x size

    • UHTC equipped (mach 20 vs. 3.5)


SHARP-S program timeline


SHARP S-series GROUPS

NASA Ames Research Center

project co-ordinator, aero/thermodynamics

Montana State University

re-entry vehicle structure

Stanford University

re-entry vehicle avionics

Wickman Spacecraft & Propulsion

launch vehicle & site


MSU SHARP TEAM

PI: Dr. Doug Cairns

MSGC: Dr. Bill Hiscock

manager: Aaron Sears

consultant: Will Ritter

students: Mike Hornemann

Kevin Amende

Cindy Heath

Crystal Colliflower

Dustin Cram


MSU research groups

  • Montana Space Grant Consortium

    • federally funded program which disperses grant money to space oriented projects

  • Composites Research Group

    • co-directors: Dr. Cairns, Dr. Mandell

    • material characterization, structures & manufacturing

    • wind energy, aerospace


NASA designated responsibilities

  • Design and build the S1-4 re-entry vehicles using composite materials

  • integrate the structure with:

    • avionics (Stanford)

    • sounding rocket (Wickman Spacecraft)

  • low operating budget

    • faster, better, cheaper motto

    • $ 50k/year budget


S1 shape

  • S1 dimensions supplied by NASA

17”

4.4”

39.5”

6.6”

11.3o


mold

peripherals

assembly

4 part design

ProE design

FEM analysis

design

manufacturing

* all design, analysis and manufacturing performed

in-house at MSU


S1 design constraints

results

- epoxy matrix

- metal tip (aluminum/steel)

-composite shell w solid tip

- carbon/epoxy

  • Withstand high temperatures

    • 600 F in shell (one use)

    • 1000+ F at tip

  • lightweight

  • CG in front of center of pressure

  • smooth aerodynamic surface

  • withstand dynamic pressures of 10 psi with minor deflections

  • unlimited systems integrations

  • provide locations & mounting for

    • pressure and temperature sensors

    • avionics components


S1 design

  • 4 part design

    • shell

    • component mounting frame

      • parachute

    • tip

    • base

  • peripheral & equipment

    • shell mold

    • fin-tube


S1 design

fin-tube

shell

(mounting frame internal)

base plate sensor arrangement

tip

S1 with fin-tube drag stabilizer

cutaway view of internal mounting frame

(spar system)


shell design

  • Provides the aerodynamic surface and serves as a main structural member

    • only surface interruptions are 6, ~1/16” holes for pressure and temperature sensors

  • One piece

    • only joint along aero-surface at tip interface

    • pressure bladder manufactured

  • IM7/8552 carbon/epoxy laminate

    • ~ 0.10” thick


shell/spar structure

  • Integrates the component mounting frame into the vehicle structure

  • spar system is removable for unlimited avionics & systems integration

spars


spar system

  • 2 axial, 3 lateral

    • carbon/epoxy plates

    • mechanically connected

  • guided in by L-rails bonded into shell

    • spars mechanically attach into L’s for unlimited systems integration

  • 4th lateral spar of aluminum

  • sensor board mount on left axial


structural design drivers

  • aerodynamic pressures

    • ~ 10 psi at Mach 3.5

  • launch vibrations

    • as Orion class sounding rocket

    • 6-g random vibration

  • heat

    • 600 F at tip/shell interface

    • +1000 F at tip

  • component space allocation

    • forward CG required advanced placement of heaviest components

    • governed possible placements of spars


hypersonic pressure analysis

(inches)

(02/±45/903)s hoop = 90, axial = 0, E1 = 20 Msi (~65% Vf, 0.058 lbf/ft3), t = 0.09”

hypersonic skin pressure = 2.78 psi (Mach 3.5, 85,000 ft)


natural frequency analysis

mode 1: 56 hz

mode 2: 111 hz

mode 3 : 180 hz

(02/±45/903)s hoop = 90, axial = 0, E1 = 20 Msi (~65% Vf, 0.058 lbf/ft3), t = 0.09”

(base plate constrained boundary condition)


tip & interface

  • design drivers

    • forward the CG location for aerodynamic stability

    • temperature resistance

    • pull-off (drag difference) force

    • smooth external interface

  • features

    • aluminum

      • better machining control

    • 1/2” lip for shell overhang

      • improves transition and connection

    • steel parachute line mounts

      • better impact/fracture properties than composites


tip interface sketch

mounting bolt

steel mounting plate

tip

link

parachute line

lip

retention cup

epoxy

shell

epoxy gap sanded flush


tip & interface


S1 sensor locations

Pressure (8)

Temperature (4)

  • The


parachute specifications

  • manufacturer

    • Rocketman recovery parachutes

    • Ky Michaelson

  • specifications

    • R7 pro experimental

    • 2.12 lbs

    • reinforced panels

    • specially formed canvas deployment bag


parachute deployment

  • Deployment mechanism

    • single bay door

      • hinged

      • latched by #2 nylon bolt

    • black powder charge pushes parachute through door

  • Altitude

    • 20,000 ft


shell mold

Top half of mold

Male preform plug


mold design

result

Constraint

  • Must be able to withstand temperatures up to 400F for curing of the resin

  • Aerodynamic surface shape requires tight tolerances

  • Seam lines kept to a minimum

  • Must be able to withstand pressures up to 80 psi

  • requires a metal mold

  • CNC provides tightest tolerances

  • machined from solid blocks


P

Aluminum

- lower weight & thermal mass

- no warpage during machining

Steel

- better damage tolerance

O

mold design

  • Negative of S1 model

  • All dimensions to .0001 inch

  • ProE IGES to MasterCam for CNC

  • Equivalent commercial mold cost

    • $ 35,000

  • Estimated MSU mold cost

    • materials: $ 1,600

    • labor: $ 5,000

    • tooling: $ 500


plug

  • CNC machined from ProE model

    • Accurate shape insures that pre-form will fit snugly into the mold

    • The plug is .25 inch smaller than real sharp in all directions


manufacturing - tip

current tip pic in HAAS


composites manufacturing

1. preforming

2. curing

(w pressure &/or vacuum)

3. trim & assembly


prototyping

  • Aid troubleshooting

    • design methodology

    • details

  • 2 prototypes (full scale)

    • G1

      • glass polyester/shell, wood tip

      • S1 deployment test

    • G2

      • glass polyester/shell

      • avionics mounting trouble shooting


S1 structure parts


assembly & integration

  • first full assembly at Stanford for flight certification tests

  • total weight 44.5 lbs.

  • CG: 52% of length


flight certification tests

  • mass properties *!

    • center of gravity

    • moment of inertia

  • vibration loading (shake test) *!

    • sine sweep (natural frequency)

    • random vibrations (launch loading)

  • deployment tests,

  • altitude chamber (Stanford only)

* performed at NASA Ames Research Center

! passed


moment of inertia

roll

CA DAQ- proximity detector

yaw


shake testing

yawwise shake

pitchwise shake

CA DAQ- acceloremator w FFT


Launch

TBA

Avionics

software at 90% complete

altitude chamber test

Rocket

static fire- 10/18/00

weld failure at 4 seconds

good propellant fire

S1 status


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