mr Gordana Zalad. EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS.
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QUESTIONS•Would you like to read a book that is just one paragraph long? •Have you ever, when selecting a book for leisure reading, glanced through it to see how much conversation there was in it? •If so, you know that the short paragraphs of conversation are easier reading than the long ones. •If division into paragraphs helps you when you are reading, remember this fact when you write.
WHAT A PARAGRAPH IS•In dialogue each speech is paragraph. •Definition: a paragraph is a group of sentences developing one topic. •Paragraphs vary widely in length from the short ones to an occasional long one of 250 or 300 words. •A good length for ordinary writing is 100-150 words. •In newspaper articles and business letters shorter paragraphs are used – about 60 words.
TOPIC SENTENCE •When we write or speak a paragraph, it is wise to start with a topic sentence, although it may be placed in the middle or at the end of the paragraph •A topic sentence is a brief statement of the subject of a paragraph •It shows exactly what we are going to talk about. •The beginner progresses more rapidly if he forms the habit of expressing the main idea of a paragraph in the first sentence and using the topic sentence as a foundation on which to build the paragraph.
KEYS•A good topic sentence, like a good guide, gives accurate and complete information. •The key word or phrase is the most useful part of the topic sentence both to the reader and the writer. •CLINCHER SENTENCE is the last sentence of a paragraph where writer restates his point of the paragraph.
PRINCIPLES OF PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE •The three principles of paragraph structure are: a)UNITYb)COHERENCEc)EMPHASISa) Unity means oneness. A paragraph has unity of thought if it sticks to the subject.
b)COHERENCE, literally “hanging together”, includes two things:1. the proper arrangement of the ideas 2.bridging the gaps between sentences with connectives that show the exact relationship of parts. Useful bridges: this, that, these, those, such and same, personal pronouns, repeated nouns (echo words), synonyms, adverbs, conjunctions and connective phrases.c)EMPHASIS requires that significant matters stand out and unimportant details keep in the background. First impressions are lasting and the ending is longest remembered.
METHODS OF PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT •Paragraph building is the development of the topic sentence in some logical and natural manner. •The way to develop a paragraph depends on what you have to say. •The methods are different. You may: picture the details of how your team won the game;give examples of the spectators’ behavior at the match; compare the differences in strategy between open and closed market;define the topic word; or give reasons for thinking your football team will win the cup.
•Commonly two or more methods are combined in the development of a paragraph. •Details may be supported by examples. •A definition may include details, illustrations, comparison and contrast.
STUDYNG PARAGRAPHS • When writing a paragraph you should examine and answer the following questions: 1)Has it a topic sentence? What? 2)Does the paragraph stick to its subject? Prove.3)Are word bridges used? What?4)Are the most important ideas placed near the beginning and the end and given most space?
BUILDING A PARAGRAPH•Use a topic or topic sentence as a foundation •First gather material, searching especially for examples, illustrations, comparisons, pictures and other concrete support of the topic sentence. •ASK: How? Why? What? What of it? What is it like or unlike? What example or illustration will make my point clear? How do I know?