Lecture Outlines Chapter 8 Environment: The Science behind the Stories 4th Edition Withgott/Brennan. This lecture will help you understand:. Human population growth Different viewpoints on this growth Population, affluence, and technology’s effects Demography Demographic transition
Environment:The Science behind the Stories
It would take 30 years, counting once each second, to count to a billion!
It would take 210 years to count to 7 billion!
Due to exponential growth, even if the growth rate remains steady, population will continue to grow
Madagascar’s age structure is heavily weighted toward the young
Canada’s age structure is balanced
Slower rates of growth do not mean a decreasing population—population size continues to increase
Population growth is seen as a temporary phenomenon
For people to attain the material standard of living of North Americans, we would need the natural resources of four and a half more Earths
Fertility rates drop when women gain access to contraceptives, family planning programs, and educational opportunities
Women with little power have unintended pregnancies
Two-thirds of the world’s illiterate are womenEmpowering women reduces growth rates
Educating women reduces fertility rates, delays childbirth, and gives them a voice in reproductive decisions
The U.S. lags behind the world in proportion of women representatives
Blue = with family planning
Red = without family planning
Poorer societies have higher population growth rates contraceptives, family planning programs, and educational opportunities
Consistent with the demographic transition theory
They have higher fertility and growth rates, with lower contraceptive usePoverty and population growth are correlated
99% of the next billion people added will be born in poor, less developed regions that are least able to support them
Africa’s Sahel and western China are turning to desert
One American has as much environmental impact as 4.5 Chinese or 10 Indians or 19 Afghans
Humanity’s global ecological footprint surpassed Earth’s capacity in 1987
The contrast between rich and poor societies causes social and environmental stress
The richest 20% use 86% of the world’s resources
Increasing tensions between “haves” and “have-nots”The wealth gap and population growth cause conflict
HIV is established and spreading quickly around the world
Decreased AIDS deaths are due to policy, collaboration, research, NGOs, and grassroots efforts
What has accounted for most of the world’s population growth in recent years?
a) Women are having more babies.
b) Technology, medicine, and food have decreased death rates.
c) Fewer women are using contraceptives.
d) Nothing, the population has dropped in recent years.
According to the I = P x A x T x S formula, what would happen to the impact if China’s 1 billion people had a lifestyle like Americans?
a) Their population would automatically drop.
b) Their population would automatically increase.
c) Their affluence and technology would increase.
d) Their impact on the environment would decrease.
Where is the highest density of people found?
a) In the colder climates (e.g., Siberia)
b) In temperate or tropical biomes
c) In rural areas
d) In drier areas
An age structure diagram shaped like a pyramid, with a wide base shows an ________ population.
Describe the relationship between population growth rates and population size.
a) Falling growth rates automatically mean a smaller population.
b) Falling growth rates automatically mean a larger population.
c) Falling growth rates means we no longer have a population problem.
d) Falling growth rates does not mean a smaller population, but that rates of increase are slowing.
Should the United States fund international family- planning efforts?
b) Yes, but only in nations that follow U.S.-approved programs
c) Only if it can influence the nations’ policies
d) Never under any circumstances, it’s not our job
Would you rather live in a country with a larger population or smaller population?
a) Small population, so there will be more resources for me
b) Small population, so there will be more resources for others, including wildlife
c) Large population, so I can find a date
d) Large population, because people are our biggest resource
What happens during the “transitional” stageof the demographic transition?
c) Much larger
According to this age pyramid, Madagascar’s future population will be:
a) Iraq and Pakistan
b) Malawi and Haiti
c) Malawi and Kenya
Kenya and Bangladesh
According to these graphs, which countries had access to family planning?