DNA. mRNA. Making Proteins. rRNA. protein. This image summarizes the processes of transcription and translation. What are the three stages in this process (central dogma) and where are they in this picture?. tRNA. RNA. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)
Making mRNA from DNA
3. The mRNA strand is created. It now compliments the original DNA strand (G-C and A-U).
4. Ligase helps the strand of DNA to close again.
5. mRNA strand moves out of nucleus to ribosomes, DNA zips up.
rRNA = RNA that makes up a ribosome
tRNA = RNA that transfers specific amino acids
mRNA = carries the DNA message;
RNA transcribed from DNA
Codon = 3 nucleotides in a row on a strand of mRNA that code for an amino acid
Anticodon = 3 nucleotides in tRNA that base pair with the codon
Amino Acids = monomers of proteins (20 in humans)
Do the math on your own or with a neighbor.
I am completely unchanged, and ready for some more sucrose!
I am an enzyme. I am going to try to convert you.
1. Enzymes = Catalysts that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction
Hi sweeties, Do you remember me?
I am the active site. The substrate binds to me.
I am a product, too. I am a fructose now.
I am now a product. I am a glucose now.
In addition to what you know. I am a substrate.
2. Structural Proteins
3. Transport Proteins
4. Motor Proteins
5. Hormones (signaling proteins)
7. Other specialized functions
A system of membrane organelles that are inter-related in their function
Take notes on the following slides as your teacher narrates what is happening
Do you remember me?
I’ll give you a hint: I am in charge of making ribosomes and the RNA used to make proteins!
Well, before we go too far, we must not forget about me! Sometimes I’m rough and sometimes I’m smooth… no matter what, I’m always important to protein synthesis!
I have a bit of a complex, because I go by several different last names.
However, my first name is always Golgi.
I am a ribosomal subunit… soon to become a ribosome.Follow me as I travel to the E.R.How does this design compare to what we have already learned about protein synthesis?
Which does give me a complex as well…
Attached Ribosomes: They make proteins that are either
1) secreted out of the cell
2) attached to the plasma membrane
3) stays enclosed in a membrane to function as another organelle, such as a lysosome.
Free Ribosomes: They make proteins that stay within the cytoplasm. The cell uses these proteins itself.