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Forestry & Society Forests of the U.S. HORT/RGSC 302 J.G. Mexal. Importance of forests. National forests serve as watersheds providing water for 60 million people Roadkills total 1 million/day 2000 invasive species in US infesting 3.5 million ac and costing $120 billion Recreation:

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Forestry society forests of the u s

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.

HORT/RGSC 302

J.G. Mexal


Importance of forests

Importance of forests

  • National forests serve as watersheds providing water for 60 million people

  • Roadkills total 1 million/day

  • 2000 invasive species in US infesting 3.5 million ac and costing $120 billion

  • Recreation:

    • 36 million off-roaders

    • 71 million birders spending $32 billion


Forestry facts

Forestry Facts

  • Pre-consumer recycled paper– trimmings and scraps before sales

  • Post-consumer recycled paper – recovered after use (newspapers, cardboard, etc)

  • Mechanical Pulping: up to 95% efficiency – used in newsprint

  • Chemical Pulping: dissolves lignin,bleached, stronger, lower yield


Forestry society forests of the u s outline

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Outline

  • Forest Ownership

  • Forest Laws

  • Forest Types

  • Forest Harvesting


Forestry society forests of the u s

Forestry & SocietyU.S. Land Use and Population / Pop.Act.Int’l 1999

Millions (ha)

Year


Forestry society growing forests mass 1920 1985 u mass ces 1993

Forestry & SocietyGrowing Forests/ Mass. 1920-1985/ U.Mass. CES 1993


Forestry society growing forests mass 1971 1985 u mass ces 1993

Forestry & SocietyGrowing Forests/ Mass. 1971-1985/ U.Mass. CES 1993


Changes in developed area from 1982 1997

Changes in developed area from 1982-1997


Who owns the nation s forests

Who owns the Nation’s forests?

Value = million acres

4 million landowners


Forestry society forests of the u s ownership

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Ownership

Landowners (1000)

Landholdings (ac)

Butler & Leatherberry JFor 102:4:2004


Forestry society a brief history of time

Forestry & SocietyA brief history of time

  • USDA formed in 1862 to improve food production

  • CSRS formed in 1887 by Hatch Act

  • USFS formed in 1905 (moved from Dept of Interior to Dept of Agriculture)

  • CES formed in 1914 by Smith-Lever Act

  • SCS (NRCS) formed in 1935

  • ARS formed in 1953


Forestry society forests of the u s public lands

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Public Lands

  • US Forest Service (1905)

    • 192 million acres in 43 states (25% of public lands)

    • 156 national forests in 43 states

    • 85% in 13 western states

  • Bureau of Land Management (1812)

    • 341 million acres (~1/8 of US total land base)

    • Administers mineral leases on 732 million acres of federal land

  • National Park Service (1872)

    • 79.5 million acres (49 states, except Delaware)(11%)

  • Bureau of Indian Affairs

    • 55 million acres (7%)


Forestry society forests of the u s us forest service

1905 Mission

“to protect the reserves against fire, to assist the people in their use, and to see that they are properly used.”

2005 Mission

“to manage national forests for multiple uses and benefits and for the sustained yield of renewable resources such as water, forage, wildlife, wood and recreation.”

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- US Forest Service


Forestry society forests of the u s us forest service1

1905

Chief Gifford Pinchot

83 forest reserves + no grasslands

63 million acres

$400,000 annual budget

270 employees

2005

Chief Dale Bosworth

155 forests + 20 grasslands

192 million acres

(8% of US)

$4.1 billion annual budget

37,648 employees

Only 2% of wood production comes from federal lands

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- US Forest Service


Forestry society forests of the u s laws

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Laws

  • Forest Reserves Act (1891): set aside public lands in DoI

  • Organic Act (1897): manage public lands for water & timber

  • Transfer Act (1905):

    • transferred public lands from Dept. of Interior to USDA

    • formed USFS

  • 1908 Law allocated 25% of from FS timber revenues to counties (Payment in Lieu of Taxes [PILT])

  • 1937 Law allocated 50% of BLM timber revenues to counties

  • Weeks Act (1911)

    • work w/ states in fire protection

    • purchase headwaters--established eastern Nat’l For.


Forestry society forests of the u s laws1

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Laws

  • Clarke-McNary Act (1924):

    • assist states with silviculture (fire, reforestation, mgt)

    • liberalized land acquisition programs

  • McSweeney-McNary Act (1928)

    • authorized comprehensive research programs in forestry & range management

  • Knutson-Vandenberg Act (1930)

    • created special fund for reforestation


Forestry society forests of the u s laws2

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Laws

  • L (1924) & U (1939) Regulations

    • Allowed primitive areas (L) and wilderness, wild, & recreational areas to be designated.

  • Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act (1960)

  • Forest & Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) (1974)

  • National Forest Management Act (NFMA) (1976)

    • incorporate other uses of forest in planning


Major forest types

Major Forest Types


Forestry society forests of the u s east

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--East

  • Southeastern Pine-Hardwood Forest

    • 13 southern states

    • Precipitation: 100-125 cm/yr (40-50”)

    • Mean annual Temperature: 10oC- 24oC (50-75oF)

    • Soils: deep (>150 cm), old, & weathered

    • Major species: Pinus taeda (loblolly)

      Pinus echinata (shortleaf) Pinus palustris (longleaf)

      Pinus elliotii (slash) P. virginiana (Virginia)

      Liquidambar (sweetgum)Quercus sp. (oaks)


Forestry in mississippi 1999 data 18 million acres 62 of state

$14 billion = total industry output

Paper = 3.8 billion

Furniture = 4.1 billion

Timber harvesting = 1.14 billion

Lumber & wood products = 5.9 billion

141,848 jobs = total industry

Paper = 30,688

Furniture = 50,079

Timber harvesting = 10,796

Lumber & wood products = 55,618

Forestry in Mississippi/1999 data18 million acres = 62% of state


Forestry society forests of the u s southeast

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Southeast

www.nationalatlas.gov


Forestry society forests of the u s east1

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- East

  • Central Hardwood Forest

    • 8 central states

    • Precipitation: 75-114 cm/yr (35-45”)

    • Mean annual Temperature: 8oC- 13oC (46-55oF)

    • Soils: deep (100-130 cm)

    • Major species:

      Pinus rigida(pitch)Quercus sp. (oaks)Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar)

      Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)


Forestry society forests of the u s east2

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- East

  • Appalachian Hardwood-Conifer Forest

    • Elevation range: 200-2050 m

    • Precipitation: 90-140 cm/yr (35-55”)

    • Mean annual Temperature: 10oC- 15oC (50-60oF)

    • Major species:

      Pinus strobus (white)Pinus virginiana (Virginia)

      Quercus sp. (oaks)Abies fraseri (Fraser fir)

      Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)


Forestry society forests of the u s east3

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- East

  • Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forest

    • New England & Great Lakes region

    • Precipitation: 50-75 cm/yr (20-30”)

    • Mean annual Temperature: 0oC- 5oC (32-40oF)

    • Soils: shallow with water table near surface

    • Major species: Acer saccharum (sugar maple)

      Pinus strobus (white)Pinus resinosa (red)

      Quercus sp. (oaks)Abies balsamea (balsam)

      Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)


Forestry society forests of the u s west

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- West

  • Northern Coastal Conifer Forest

    • AK, WA, OR, B.C.

    • Precipitation: 150-300 cm/yr (60-118”)[f(elev.)]

    • Mean annual Temperature: 5oC- 12oC (41-54oF)

    • Soils:glacial deposits

    • Elevation: 0-3000 m

    • Major species: Pseudotsuga menzeisii (Douglas-fir)

    • Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)

    • Picea stichensis (Sitka spruce)Alnus rubra (alder)


Forestry in oregon 1998 data 16 million acres 25 of state 1 in lumber plywood

$14 billion = total industry output

Paper = $1.2 billion

Timber harvesting = $4.2 billion

Lumber & wood products = $3.0 billion

74,817 jobs = total industry

Secondary products = 23,259

Forestry & Timber harvesting = 20,220

Primary products = 31,338

Forestry in Oregon/1998 data16 million acres (25% of state) = #1 in lumber & plywood


Forestry society forests of the u s west coombes 1992

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- West/ Coombes 1992

Pseudotsuga menziesii

Douglas-fir


Forestry society forests of the u s west1

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- West

  • Southern Coastal Conifer Forest

    • CA, OR

    • Precipitation: 40-200 cm/yr (16-80”)[f(elev.)]

    • Mean annual Temperature: 5oC- 12oC (41-54oF)

    • Elevation: 0-2800 m

    • Major species:Sequoia sempervirens (redwood)

      Abies grandis (grand)Pinus jeffreyi (Jeffrey)

      Pinus lambertiana (sugar) Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar)


Forestry society forests of the u s west audubon 1 01

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- West/ Audubon 1/01

Sugar pine - Pinus lambertiana


Forestry society forests of the u s west2

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- West

Sequoia sempervirens

California redwood

Sequoiadendron giganteum

Giant sequoia


Species vs elevation in sierra nevadas forest hydrology chang 2006

Species vs Elevation in Sierra Nevadas/Forest Hydrology, Chang 2006


Forestry society forests of the u s west science 204 1380 1386 1979

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.-- West/Science 204:1380-1386:1979


Forestry society forests of the u s questions

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Questions

  • What are some major species of eastern forests? Describe them.

  • What are some major species of western forests? Describe them..What are some major species of southwestern forests? Describe them. Compare the productivity of temperate forests with tropical and boreal forests.

  • Describe the ownership pattern of forestland in the US. What were the major laws that determined US forest land policy? What did they do for US forest policy?


Forestry society forests of the u s questions1

Forestry & SocietyForests of the U.S.--Questions

  • Describe the SE pine-hardwood forest; location, diversity, species, climate, soils.

  • Describe the NE hardwood-conifer forest; location, diversity, species, climate, soils.

  • Describe the western coastal conifer forest; location, diversity, species, climate, soils.

  • Describe the Rocky Mountain conifer forest; location, diversity, species, climate, soils.


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