ANTEPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE. Obstetric Haemorrhage. Ranks as the First cause of maternal mortality accounting for 25 – 50 % of maternal deaths. APH: Epediology & Causes. Magnitude: 4% of women may develop APH. Causes: placenta previa (1/200) placental abruption (1/100)
Are based on
2. Caesarean Section
The internal cervical os is covered completely by placenta.
The internal os is partially covered by placenta.
3. Marginal placenta praevia
The edge of the placenta is at the margin of the internal os.
The placenta is implanted in the lower uterine segment such that the placental edge actually does not reach the internal os but is in close proximity to it.
Abruption Previa Rupture
Abdominal pain present absent variable
Vaginal blood old fresh fresh
DIC common rare rare
Fetal distress common rare common
Carcinoma of cervix
Bilharzia of cervix
CervicitisLocal & Unknown Causes of APH