Parallel system interconnections and communications
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Parallel System Interconnections and Communications. Abdullah Algarni February 23,2009. Outline . Parallel Architectures - SISD - SIMD - MIMD - Shared memory systems -Distributed memory machines Physical Organization of Parallel Platforms - Ideal Parallel Computer

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Parallel system interconnections and communications

Parallel System Interconnections and Communications

Abdullah Algarni

February 23,2009


Outline

Outline

  • Parallel Architectures

    - SISD

    - SIMD

    - MIMD

    -Shared memory systems

    -Distributed memory machines

  • Physical Organization of Parallel Platforms

    -Ideal Parallel Computer

  • Interconnection Networks for Parallel Computers

    -Static and Dynamic Interconnection Networks

    -Switches

    -Network interfaces


Outline con

Outline (con.)

  • Network Topologies

    -Buses

    -Crossbars

    -Multistage Networks

    -Multistage Omega Network

    -Completely Connected Network

    -Linear Arrays

    -Meshes

    -Hypercubes

    -Tree-Based Networks

    -Fat Trees

    -Evaluating Interconnection Networks

  • Grid Computing


Classification of parallel architectures

Classification of Parallel Architectures

  • SISD: Single instruction single data

    – Classical von Neumann architecture

  • SIMD: Single instruction multiple data

  • MIMD: Multiple instructions multiple data

    – Most common and general parallel machine


Single instruction multiple data

Single Instruction Multiple Data

• Also known as Array-processors

• A single instruction stream is broadcasted to multiple processors, each having its own data stream

– Still used in graphics cards today


Multiple instructions multiple data

Multiple Instructions Multiple Data

• Each processor has its own instruction stream and input data

  • Further breakdown of MIMD usually based on the memory organization

    – Shared memory systems

    – Distributed memory systems


Shared memory systems

Shared memory systems

  • All processes have access to the same address space

    – E.g. PC with more than one processor

  • Data exchange between processes by writing/reading shared variables

  • Advantage: Shared memory systems are easy to program

  • – Current standard in scientific programming: OpenMP


Shared memory systems1

Shared memory systems

• Two versions of shared memory systems available today:

  • – Symmetric multiprocessors (SMP)

  • – Non-uniform memory access (NUMA)


Symmetric multi processors smps

Symmetric multi-processors (SMPs)

• All processors share the same physical main memory

• Disadvantage: Memory bandwidth per processor is limited

• Typical size: 2-32 processors


Numa architectures 1 non uniform memory access

NUMA architectures (1)(Non-uniform memory access)

• More than one memory but some memory is closer to a certain processor than other memory

  • The whole memory is still addressable from all processors


Numa architectures cont

NUMA architectures (cont.)

• Advantage: ItReduces the memory limitation compared to SMPs

• Disadvantage: More difficult to program efficiently

• To reduce effects of non-uniform memory access, caches are often used

• Largest example of this type:

SGI Origin with10240 processors

Columbia Supercomputer


Distributed memory machines

Distributed memory machines

  • Each processor has its own address space

  • Communication between processes by explicit data exchange

  • Some protocols are used:

    – Sockets

    – Message passing

    – Remote procedure call / remote method invocation


Distributed memory machines con

Distributed memory machines(Con.)

• Performance of a distributed memory machine strongly depends on the quality of the network interconnect and the topology of the network interconnect

  • Two classes of distributed memory machines:

    1) Massively parallel processing systems (MPPs)

    2) Clusters


Physical organization of parallel platforms

Physical Organization of Parallel Platforms


Ideal parallel computer

Ideal Parallel Computer

  • A natural extension of the Random Access Machine (RAM) serial architecture is the Parallel Random Access Machine, or PRAM.

  • PRAMs consist of p processors and a global memory of unbounded size that is uniformly accessible to all processors.

  • Processors share a common clock but may execute different instructions in each cycle.


Ideal parallel computer1

Ideal Parallel Computer

  • Depending on how simultaneous memory accesses are handled, PRAMs can be divided into four subclasses.

    • Exclusive-read, exclusive-write (EREW) PRAM.

    • Concurrent-read, exclusive-write (CREW) PRAM.

    • Exclusive-read, concurrent-write (ERCW) PRAM.

    • Concurrent-read, concurrent-write (CRCW) PRAM.


Ideal parallel computer2

Ideal Parallel Computer

  • What does concurrent write mean, anyway?

    • Common: write only if all values are identical.

    • Arbitrary: write the data from a randomly selected processor.

    • Priority: follow a pre-determined priority order.

    • Sum: Write the sum of all data items.


Physical complexity of an ideal parallel computer

Physical Complexity of an Ideal Parallel Computer

  • Processors and memories are connected via switches.

  • Since these switches must operate in O(1) time at the level of words, for a system of p processors and m words, the switch complexity is O(mp).


Brain simulation

Brain simulation

Imagine how long it takes to complete Brain Simulation?

  • The human brain contains 100,000,000,000 neurons each neuron receives input from 1000 others

  • To compute a change of brain “state”, one requires 1014 calculations

  • If each could be done in 1s, it would take ~3 years to

    complete one calculation.


Parallel system interconnections and communications

Brain simulation

Imagine how long it takes to complete Brain Simulation?

  • The human brain contains 100,000,000,000 neurons, each neuron receives input from 1000 others

  • To compute a change of brain “state”, one requires 1014 calculations

  • If each could be done in 1s, it would take ~3 years to

    complete one calculation.

  • Clearly, O(mp) for big values

    of p and m, a true PRAM is not realizable.


Interconnection networks for parallel computers

Interconnection Networks for Parallel Computers

  • Important metrics:

    – Latency:

    • minimal time to send a message from one processor to another

    • Unit: ms, μs

    – Bandwidth:

    • amount of data which can be transferred from one processor to another in a certain time frame

    • Units: Bytes/sec, KB/s, MB/s, GB/s, Bits/sec, Kb/s, Mb/s, Gb/s


Important terms

Important terms


Static and dynamic interconnection networks

Static and DynamicInterconnection Networks

Classification of interconnection networks:

(a) a static network; and (b) a dynamic network.


Switches

Switches

  • Switches map a fixed number of inputs to outputs.

  • degree of the switch: the total number of ports on a switch is the degree of the switch.

  • The cost of a switch: grows as the square of the degree of the switch.


Network interfaces

Network Interfaces

  • Processors talk to the network via a network interface.

  • The network interface may hang off the I/O bus or the memory bus.

  • In a physical sense, this distinguishes a cluster from a tightly coupled multicomputer.

  • The relative speeds of the I/O and memory buses impact the performance of the network.


Network topologies

Network Topologies

- A variety of network topologies have been proposed and implemented.

- These topologies tradeoff performance for cost.

- Commercial machines often implement hybrids of multiple topologies for reasons of packaging, cost, and available components.

Single Campus Network

  • 538 nodes

  • 543 links

10 campus networks connected in ring


Buses

Buses

  • Some of the simplest and earliest parallel machines used buses.

  • All processors access a common bus for exchanging data.

  • The distance between any two nodes is O(1) in a bus. The bus also provides a convenient broadcast media.

  • However, the bandwidth of the shared bus is a major bottleneck.

  • Typical bus based machines are limited to dozens of nodes. Sun Enterprise servers and Intel Pentium based shared-bus multiprocessors are examples of such architectures.


Buses first type

Buses(First type)

The execution time is lower bounded by:

TxKP seconds

P: processors

K: data items

T: time for each data access

The bounded bandwidth of a bus places limitations on the overall performance of the network as the number of nodes increases!


Buses second type with chache memory

Buses(Second type, with chache memory)

If we assume that 50% of the memory accesses (0.5K) are made to local data, in this case:

The execution time is lower bounded by:

0.5x TxKP seconds

Which means that we made 50% improvement compared to the first type.


Crossbars

Crossbars

A crossbar network uses an p×m grid of switches to connect p inputs to m outputs in a non-blocking manner


Crossbars1

Crossbars

  • The cost of a crossbar of p processors grows as O(p2).

  • This is generally difficult to scale for large values of p.

  • Examples of machines that employ crossbars include the Sun Ultra HPC 10000 and the Fujitsu VPP500.


Multistage networks

Multistage Networks

  • Crossbars have excellent performance scalability but poor cost scalability.

  • Buses have excellent cost scalability, but poor performance scalability.

  • Multistage interconnects strike a compromise between these extremes.


Multistage networks1

Multistage Networks

The schematic of a typical multistage interconnection network


Multistage omega network

Multistage Omega Network

  • One of the most commonly used multistage interconnects is the Omega network.

  • This network consists of log p stages, where p is the number of inputs/outputs.

    So, for 8 processors and 8 memory banks we need 3 stages


Multistage omega network1

Multistage Omega Network

  • Each stage of the Omega network implements a perfect shuffle as follows:


Multistage omega network2

Multistage Omega Network

  • The perfect shuffle patterns are connected using 2×2 switches.

  • The switches operate in two modes – crossover or passthrough.

Two switching configurations of the 2 × 2 switch:

(a) Pass-through; (b) Cross-over.


Multistage omega network3

Multistage Omega Network

  • A complete Omega network with the perfect shuffle interconnects and switches can now be illustrated:

An omega network has p/2 × log pswitching nodes, and the cost of such a network grows as (p log p).


Multistage omega network routing

Multistage Omega Network – Routing

  • Let s be the binary representation of the source and d be that of the destination.

  • The data traverses the link to the first switching node. If the most significant bits of s and d are the same, then the data is routed in pass-through mode by the switch else, it switches to crossover.

  • This process is repeated for each of the log p switching stages using the next significant bit.


Multistage omega network routing1

Multistage Omega Network – Routing

Routing from s= 010 , to d=111

Routing from s= 110 , to d=101


Completely connected network

Completely Connected Network

  • Each processor is connected to every other processor.

  • The number of links in the network scales as O(p2).

  • While the performance scales very well, the hardware complexity is not realizable for large values of p.

  • In this sense, these networks are

    static counterparts of crossbars.

crossbars

Completely Connected


Star connected networks

Star Connected Networks

  • Every node is connected only to a common node at the center.

  • Distance between any pair of nodes is O(1). However, the central node becomes a bottleneck.

  • In this sense, star connected networks are static counterparts of buses.

Stat

Bus

Stat


Linear arrays

Linear Arrays

  • In a linear array, each node has two neighbors, one to its left and one to its right.

  • If the nodes at either end are connected, we refer to it as a 1-D torus or a ring.

Linear arrays: (a) with no wraparound links; (b) with wraparound link.


Meshes

Meshes

Two- and Three Dimensional Meshes

Two and three dimensional meshes: (a) 2-D mesh with no wraparound; (b) 2-D mesh with wraparound link (2-D torus); and (c) a 3-D mesh with no wraparound.


Hypercubes

Hypercubes

The Construction


Hypercubes1

Hypercubes

Properties :

  • The distance between any two nodes is at most log p.

  • Each node has log p neighbors.


Tree based networks

Tree-Based Networks

Complete binary tree networks: (a) a static tree network; and (b) a dynamic tree network.


Tree based networks1

Tree-Based Networks

Properties :

  • The distance between any two nodes is no more than 2logp.

  • Links higher up the tree potentially carry more traffic than those at the lower levels.

  • For this reason, a variant called a fat-tree, fattens the links as we go up the tree.


Fat trees

Fat Trees

A fat tree network of 16 processing nodes.


Evaluating interconnection networks

Evaluating Interconnection Networks

  • Diameter:The distance between the farthest two nodes in the network.

  • Bisection Width:The minimum number of wires you must cut to divide the network into two equal parts.

  • Cost: The number of links or switches

  • Degree: Number of links that connect to a

    processor


Evaluating static interconnection networks

Evaluating Static Interconnection Networks


Evaluating dynamic interconnection networks

Evaluating Dynamic Interconnection Networks


Can we make sharing between different organizations

Can we make Sharing between different organizations?


Grid computing

Grid Computing

  • How?

    By using Grid computing we can make Computational Resources sharing Across the World.

  • What is the relationship between parallel computing and grid computing?

    Grid computing is a special case of parallel computing


Can we tie all components tightly by software

Can we tie all components tightly by software?

PCs, SMPs

Clusters

RAID

High Speed Network

Disks

Problem Solving Environment

  • Menu

  • Template

  • Solver

  • Pre & Post

  • Mesh

Visual Data Server


Parallel system interconnections and communications

Result

Resource

Broker

GRID CONCEPT

User Access Point

Grid Resources

Talk at SASTRA


Are grids a solution

Are Grids a Solution?

  • Goals of Grid Computing

  • Reduce computing costs

  • Increase computing resources

  • Reduce job turnaround time

  • Reduce Complexity to Users

  • Increase Productivity


Parallel system interconnections and communications

Computational Resources

Reply

Clusters

MPP

Workstations

MPI, PVM,Condor...

Choice

Matlab

Mathematica

C, Fortran

Java, Perl

Java GUI

Broker

Request

Scheduler

Database

Client - RPC like

What is needed?

ISP

Gatekeeper


What does the grid do for you

What does the Grid do for you?

  • You submit your work

  • And the Grid

    • Finds convenient places for it to be run

    • Organises efficient access to your data

      • Caching, migration, replication

    • Deals with authentication to the different sites that you will be using

    • Interfaces to local site resource allocation mechanisms, policies

    • Runs your jobs, Monitors progress, Recovers from problems, Tells you when your work is complete


Typical current grid

Typical current grid

  • Virtual organisations negotiate with sites to agree access to resources

  • Grid middleware runs on each shared resource to provide

    • Data services

    • Computation services

    • Single sign-on

  • Distributed services (both people and middleware) enable the grid

INTERNET

E-infrastructure is the key !!!


Examples of grids

Examples of Grids

  • TeraGrid (www.teragrid.org)

    • USA distributed terascale facility at 4 sites for open scientific research

  • Information Power Grid (www.ipg.nasa.gov)

    NASAs high performance computing grid

    • GARUDA

      Department of Information Technology (India Gov.).

      It connect 45 institutes in 17 cities in the country at

      10/100 Mbps bandwidth.


References

References:

  • [1] Introduction to Parallel Computing. By AnanthGrama, Anshul Gupta, George Karypis, and Vipin Kumar.

  • [2] Parallel System Interconnections and Communications. By D. Grammatikakies, D. Frank Hsu, and MiroKraetzl

  • [3] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  • [4] Introduction to Grid Computing with Globus (ibm.com/redbooks)

  • [5] Network and Parallel Computing: Ifip International Conference Npc 2008 Shanghai China Octob. By Jian (EDT)/ Li Cao

  • [6] Network and Parallel Computing . By Jian (EDT) Cao & Minglu (EDT) Li & Min-you (EDT) Wu & Jinjun (EDT) Chen


Any questions

Any Questions?


My question

My Question

  • List three types of dynamic interconnection networksthat are used in parallel computing and evaluate each of them.

  • The answer:


Abdullah algarni

Abdullah Algarni

THANK YOU


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