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Cognitive and Emotional Development . Chapter 3 Section 2 and 3 Notes . Cognitive Development . Jean Piaget Focused on the development of thought As the child grows, intelligence and the ability to understand develops.

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cognitive and emotional development

Cognitive and Emotional Development

Chapter 3 Section 2 and 3 Notes

cognitive development
Cognitive Development
  • Jean Piaget
    • Focused on the development of thought
    • As the child grows, intelligence and the ability to understand develops.
    • A child develops intellectually with both quantitative and qualitative changes.
  • Schemas- A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world.
  • Assimilation- the process of filtering objects and experiences into one’s schemas.
  • Accommodation- the adjustment of one’s schemas to include newly observed events and experiences.
  • Assimilation and accommodation work with each other to produce intellectual growth.
cognitive development1
Cognitive Development
  • Object Permanence
    • Peek-a-boo
    • “hiding a toy”
    • The object still exists even though you cannot see it or touch it
  • Representational Thought
    • The child starts to achieve ‘object permanence’
    • The child can picture things in their mind.
  • The Principle of Conservation
    • Happens between ages 5 and 7 when the child can determine that the quantity does not change even if the appearance does.
      • Example: water in different size glasses
  • Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development
    • Describes the changes that occur in a child’s understanding.
emotional development
Emotional Development
  • Imprinting
    • Inherited tendencies/responses that are displayed by

newborn animals when they encounter new stimuli in

their environment

    • Konrad Lorenzo discovered that baby geese become attached to their mother, or what they think is their mother, in an instant.
  • Surrogate mothers
    • Harry Harlow studied and tested the bond between mother and child using monkeys.
  • Human Infants
    • When an attachment is formed between mother and child, disruption can be disturbing to the infant.
      • Stranger anxiety/ separation anxiety
parenting styles
Parenting Styles
  • Authoritarian- Parents attempt to control, shape, and evaluates the behavior and attitudes of children and adolescents in accordance with a set code of conduct.
  • Democratic/Authoritative- children and adolescents participate in decisions affecting their lives.
  • Permissive/Laissez-faire- Children and adolescents have the final say; parents are less controlling and have a non-punishing, accepting attitude toward children.
social development
Social Development
  • Socialization- the process of learning rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live.
    • What is acceptable and unacceptable?
    • Gender has different rules to follow.
    • learning what rules apply and when you can bend them
  • Freud’s theory of psychosexual Development
    • All children are born with strong sexual and aggressive urges.
    • Identification- the process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same sex parent.
      • Boys have the same values and morals as their father
    • Sublimation- the process of reducing sexual impulses into learning tasks.
      • Sexual desires are pushed into the background and child learn new skills by exploring the world.
social development1
Social Development
  • Erikson’s Theory of Psychological Development
    • He recognizes the child’s sexual and aggressive urges, but also feels that social acceptance is also important.
    • We all face numerous crises as we grow up and it helps shape us one way or another
    • Erickson and Freud both believe that learning social rules is much different then riding a bike
  • Kohlberg
    • Studied moral reasoning in children and adolescences by presenting the children with different dilemmas.
    • Kohlberg’s six stages of development were created once he questioned the reasoning behind the way the children solved the dilemmas.
    • In order to reach the highest form of Moral development you must see the view points of different people.
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