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“Clean Cookstove Updates” Imperial College London, June 2013 Paul H. Riley. Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering. Current cooking habits. 3 Billion people cook on open fire. Photo courtesy Practical Action. Sub Saharan Africa Cambodia…. the World. Indian Sub continent.
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Department of Electrical And Electronic Engineering
3 Billion people cook on open fire
Photo courtesy Practical Action
Sub Saharan Africa Cambodia…. the World
Indian Sub continent
Smoke inhalation causes many health problems. Wood burning is only one source of smoke. Kerosene for lighting also contributes.
The Global Alliance for Clean Cook stoves
Started by Hillary Clinton in 2010
Aim to prevent the estimated 4 million people that die prematurely from household smoke pollution
amongst the 3 billion, mostly poor people that cook on an open fire.
Goal is for 200 million clean cookstoves to be installed by 2020.
Grown from 19 partners in 2010 to 650 in March 2013
Raised > $114M towards goal of $250M
GACC Cambodian conference  held at the Phnom Penh Hotel was a major affair with around 600 people in attendance from the world wide community.
Although world-wide representatives present, very US centred.(Only 2 from UK as far as I could tell)
GACC highly influenced by the work of Professor Kirk R. Smith, University of California, Berkeley.
Smith proposes using PM2.5 as the best single indicator of household pollution.
Using the PM2.5 indicator (24 Hr mean)
14 Jan 2013. 316 μg/m3 in Delhi, 195 μg/m3 Rural India
25 -30% of primary particle pollution from households
In 2010, 41% of households cook with solid fuels
Typical wood fire = 400 cigarettes an hour!
Subramaniam V. Iyer, Director, Sustainable Energy Department, The World Bank. 
“..how do we scale up the finance, the entrepreneurship and the capacity to go from 1 million to 100 million to a billion?..”
“..solid fuel dependence is not going away.. the number of people using solid fuel.. will.. increase to 3.4 billion by 2020.
“.. The challenge is how to develop this market..”
“.. how do we foster innovation, best practice, knowledge across communities, cities and countries? ..”
Many people at the conference assumed that reducing cooking smoke will save many of the 4 million premature lives lost.
Early indications in NW India, and Kenya  are not supportive of this view.
Many people use old and clean cookstoves depending on what they cook
Cooking not the only source of HAP
Smoke can be a disinfectant, (hence can improve health under certain circumstance) little work done in this area
Social acceptance as important as the technology
Tami Bond, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.pdf
Homo Sapiens cooking is over 70,000 years old
“The earliest convincing evidence of fire use for cooking appears at the 780,000-400,000 year old late Homo erectus site at Zhoukoudiannear Beijing, China “ 
Change is not easy.
“Research on improved cookstoves dates back to the 1950s; the ensuing decades witnessed large-scale field programs centered on increasing the efficiency of certain stove designs. Over the past 30 years, the focus of the international community has gradually shifted toward the socio-cultural contexts in which the stoves operate. While the stoves themselves may have been simple, their effects on household and regional health and economics have often been complex and far-reaching. In short, many approaches to introducing improved stoves have been tried, with some successes and many failures…”
“From 1980 until about 2002, hundreds or even thousands of artisan-produced cookstove models were developed…”
8% outside China.
Alone, clean cookstoves are boring. Phones are wanted .. Why?
May not be the design preventing uptake
Nor the funding
See Probec work in Southern Africa , .
We must take cognisance of the social context and the techno-social interactions
To improve health need to remove smoke inhalation from stove and kerosene
Used for lighting
How to make clean cookstoves more like mobile phones? To generate the want?
What are the :
If the still won’t fit
No alcohol made
Stove had hot spot
One woman burnt hand
Other 32 stoves were not used
Remove the smoke
Insects have a party
People get ill
Stove bring the demons
House eaten by termites
Conclusion: If you remove the smoke, solve the associated problems
Wood collected too big for stove
http://www.research.philips.com/password/download/password_28.pdf page 28
At household level convince change is beneficial to the
Positive “grape vine” communication is essential
Cooperative and village hierarchy have to be supportive
Potential disadvantaged need addressing
If it breaks, it will not get used..
Unless it can easily be fixed
Balance of payments
Profit flows to benefit country not foreigners
Reduction of corruption
Adding packaged solutions although adding cost can make the solution more affordable and generates the want.Stoves that generate electricity are highly motivating for all the family
Particularly lights and mobile phone charging
More importantly this has the potential to significantly increase affordability
GACC is attracting very large funders.
Although, in my view, GACC is behind the rest of the world in terms of research, it is accelerating rapidly
Anyone not involved likely to be left behind
Combination of low smoke, and electrical generating has a much better chance of success and if affordable will improve health and wealth
UK research organisations have much to offer the GACC initiative
“Household Cookstoves Environment, Health, and Climate Change” http://climatechange.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/documents/Household%20Cookstoves-web.pdf
Thanks to the EPSRC (The UK Science council)
My Score colleagues
You for listening
“Since its launch in 2010 by the then secretary of state Hillary Clinton, The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC) has increased from 10 to 650 world-wide organisations with the goal of implementing 100 million clean cookstoves by 2020. This paper will give highlights of GACC progress towards this goal from the conference held in Cambodia in March 2013 as well as discussions of the research challenges ahead. Estimates of premature deaths due to household pollution have been revised upwards to 4 million per year. However, early indications from North West India and Kenya show that just distributing clean cookstoves is not having the desired effect on health improvement. Social and other interactions are thought to have a much greater influence on health than the technical specification of the stove itself. With a larger involvement in GACC, the UK research establishments could gain more recognition for their work. Particularly understanding and solving the underlying issues, which is currently mainly US research centred. GIZ (the German development agency) are taking a European lead in GACC with a proposed conference from the 26 to 29 June to be held in Bonn. “
The Programme for Basic Energy and Conservation (ProBEC) aims to ensure that low-income population groups satisfy their energy requirements in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner. It targets rural and urban households, as well as small business and institutions using biomass energy (woodfuel, agricultural residues) for thermal processes.
ProBEC was established in 1998 after inception missions to six SADC member countries marked the end of the orientation phase. The first implementation phase took place between 1998 and 2001 and was co-financed by the European Union. The main activities during this phase was the establishment of the national steering committees, regional workshops, and a series of demonstration projects in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Namibia, as well as the development of national biomass strategy in Namibia.
The second implementation phase was from 2002-2005. It was during this time, that Biomass Energy Conservation (BEC) strategies were further developed and promoted at a national level. Importantly, the growth of future ProBEC activities took place and specific BEC measures began to be promoted. This included the selection and adaptation of improved BEC technologies, improved BEC options, training of BEC technology producers on technical and business skills and monitoring and evaluation of projects. In addition BEC expertise in the region increased, including assessment of experiences through national and regional workshops, exchanging and further development of expertise through training on project management and building knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS and other important issues that significantly effect the socio-economic status of the people involved.
Concepts for the long-term promotion of BEC in the SADC region were developed, including the analysis of options for a sustainable model for regional networking, organisational structures and infrastructure, and the preparation and organisation of ways and means to secure sustainability of BEC interventions in the SADC region.
The expansion of ProBEC to include Tanzania and Zambia also took place in this time but was only completed in 2006. A separate component was established and called the ProBEC SADC North, which included Malawi and the two new incorporated countries. The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-funded this expansion and GTZ was commissioned to act as the implementation partner.
We are currently in the third implementation phase and it is in this phase that ProBEC has overhauled its deliverables and its approach. This has dramatically broadened ProBEC\'s scope with regard to basic energy conservation, and has resulted in the increase of its influence in the SADC region.
Vision Lower income population groups satisfy their energy requirements in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner.
Thus, quality of life of lower income population in selected SADC countries will be improved.
Mission Biomass energy related institutions and private sector in the SADC region have the expertise, resources and commitment to ensure that affordable energy-efficient technologies and techniques are commercially available and widely used in the region.
Financing and implement-ing Agency ProBEC Phase II is financed by the Ministry of Economic Co-operation, Germany, and implemented by the Deutsche Ge-sellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (German Technical Cooperation)
Past phases and achievements Orientation phase (1997-1998): Inception missions to 6 SADC coun-tries, national workshops, development of proposal for implementation
1st Implementation Phase (1998-2001, co-financed by EU): Set-up and functioning of national steering committees; Realisation of regional workshops (planning, training, information exchange/networking); dem-onstration projects in full implementation in Malawi (2), Zimbabwe (2), Mozambique and Namibia; demo-projects in preparation in Lesotho and South Africa; Development of National Biomass Energy Strategy in Namibia.
84% of the schools were exclusively using rocket stoves when cooking, while 16% were using both
rocket stoves and three‐stone fire. The three‐stone fire was used for a number of reasons: in some
2010 Impact Assessment for Institutional Rocket stoves Malawi
schools, users claimed they did not have enough stoves and so resorted to using the three‐stone fire so
that they can cook enough food. In some schools, the users said that they use the three‐stone fire on
days when wood is wet because such wood does not burn well in the stoves while the fire dries it out.
Only one school, in Zomba district, people use the three‐stone fire instead of the IRS because they do
not want to carry the stove to and from the kitchen, due to its heavy weight, even though the store
room is less than ten meters from the kitchen.
Table 1: Advantages of institutional rocket stoves
ADVANTAGES OF ROCKET STOVES
ACCORDING TO USERS
1. Fuel saving 49 1
2. Clean Kitchen 21 29
3. Cook fast (saves time) 38 12
4. Less smoke 42 8
5. Less burns, accidents 35 15
6. Better taste of food 32 18
7. Less respiratory and eye
8. More comfort 37 13
9. Saves money 3 47