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10 th American History. American History Unit II – Becoming a World Power Chapter 7 Section 2- The Spanish-American War. The Spanish-American War. The Main Idea A quick victory in the Spanish-American War gave the United States a new role as a world power. The Main Idea

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10th American History

American History

Unit II – Becoming a World Power

Chapter 7 Section 2- The Spanish-American War


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The Spanish-American War

  • The Main Idea

  • A quick victory in the Spanish-American War gave the United States a new role as a world power.

  • The Main Idea

  • How did simmering unrest in Cuba lead to rebellion?

  • Why did Americans get war fever?

  • What happened in the course of the Spanish-American War?

  • Why was annexing the Philippines controversial?


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Simmering Unrest in Cuba

  • Cubans launched a series of revolts against Spain beginning in 1868, which Spain reacted to by exiling revolutionary leaders.

  • José Marti moved to New York City in 1878, continuing to agitate for Cuban independence through newspaper articles and poetry.

  • Marti returned to Cuba to participate in a revolt in February 1895 but was killed, becoming a hero instantly.

  • Spanish General Valeriano Weyler used ruthless tactics to suppress the revolt, further angering Cubans and swaying American sentiment to the side of the rebels.


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Simmering Unrest in Cuba

  • Who was Jose Marti?

  • Why did General Valeriano Weyler’s attempt to suppress the Cuban rebellion backfire?



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American’s Get War Fever

  • Americans supported Cuba- Revolutionary war and actions of General Weyler.

  • Media’s Role

    • William Randolph Hearst- Publisher- New York Journal

    • Joseph Pulitzer- Publisher – New York World

    • Yellow Journalism- Scandalous stories and shocking illustrations. Competition to sell newspapers.

    • Both papers put their support behind the Cuban rebels.


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Americans Get War Fever

  • Newspapers reported the uprising with dramatic headlines and articles.

  • A letter written by the Spanish minister to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Loome, which ridiculed President McKinley, was published by the New York Journal.

  • The battleship USS Maine blew up in Havana harbor, killing 260 American sailors.

  • Although there was no proof, the explosion was blamed on a Spanish mine, galvanizing U.S. support for war with Spain.


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American’s Get War Fever

  • The Explosion of the “Maine.”

    • The de Lome Letter- Written by Spain’s minister to the U.S. Hearst printed it in the paper.

    • The letter accused McKinley or being “weak and catering to the rabble.”

    • Americans looked at this as an insult.

    • “Jingoes” people who loved to see a fight, they wanted war.

    • “Maine” sent to Havana harbor to protect lives and property of Americans (Sugar Plantations).

    • February 15, 1898- “Maine” blows up. “Remember the Maine!”

    • How did it happen?- Spanish? Cuban Rebels? A fire in the coal storage?

    • McKinley demands Spain give Cuba its independence. Spain refuses and we declare war.



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American’s Get War Fever

  • Why did American’s get war fever?

  • What was Yellow Journalism?

  • Why could William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer be considered part of the Cuban revolt?

  • Why did the de Lome letter raise such an outcry?

  • Do you think the Spanish minister was justified in writing about the U.S. President?


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The Course of the War

  • War in Cuba

    • Teller Amendment- U.S. recognizes Cuban independence. Once free from Spain, the U.S. would leave the gov’t and control of the island to the people of Cuba.

    • U.S. War Dept. not prepared for war.

      • Soldiers had woolen uniforms for a summer war in the tropics.

      • Mess pans were left over from the Civil War.

      • Canned meat was so bad it was referred to as “embalmed beef”.

      • Regular soldiers and volunteers-

        • Rough Riders (a regiment organized and trained by Theodore Roosevelt- college athletes, cowboys, ranchers, and miners.)

        • Expected to fight as a cavalry unit they had to leave their horses behind and fought on foot.

      • Strategy-

        • capture the port of Santiago by controlling the hills around it.

        • July 1, 1898- Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill- 8,000 U.S. Soldiers

          • Buffalo Soldiers- the 9th and 10th (Indian fights on the Great Plains)

          • Rough Riders and other regular troops in support.

          • 6 Buffalo Soldiers, and Two Rough Riders (Theodore Roosevelt) got Congressional Medals of Honor.

        • July 3- U.S. fleets sinks Spanish fleet in Battle of Santiago

        • Spanish surrender in Cuba and Puerto Rico within weeks.



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The Philippines

Future President Theodore Roosevelt sent Commodore George Dewey orders to prepare for war against Spain.

Dewey engaged the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.

Steel- and iron-hulled U.S. ships helped to defeat the Spaniards.

Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had already been fighting Spain.

Surrounded by Dewey (at sea) and Aguinaldo (on land), Spanish forces surrendered.

Cuba

U.S. War Department was unprepared for war in Cuba.

American strategy was to control the port city of Santiago.

Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders helped gain control of the city at the Battle of San Juan Hill.

The U.S. Navy sank the entire Spanish fleet off the coast of Cuba.

The Course of the War


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The Course of the War

  • Consequences of the War

    • Terms of the Peace Treaty- Paris Peace Treaty

      • Spain gives up all claims to Cuba, cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.

      • Philippines turned over to U.S. for $20 million.

    • Sweet victory for the U.S.- John Hay ambassador to Great Britain in a letter to Theodore Roosevelt called it “a splendid little war”.

    • Costs to the U.S.- (about a four month war.)

      • $250 million

      • 2,957 soldier deaths from disease (mostly from yellow fever)

      • 332 Battle deaths- Army and Navy

      • Huge payoff for U.S.- U.S. now an imperialistic nation- an expansionists delight.


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The Course of the War

  • How long did the Spanish American War last?

  • Why do you think the U.S. chose the Philippines as one of the locations to attack the Spanish?

  • Why was fighting in Cuba so difficult?

  • What was unusual about the troops who fought in the Spanish-American War?

  • What do you think John Hay and Henry Cabot Lodge meant when they said the war began with highest motives and that it had world wide meaning?


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U.S. victory over Spain elevated the American position in the world.

  • Spain gave up all claims to Cuba.

  • The United States gained territory in Puerto Rico and Guam.

  • Spain turned over the Philippines for $20 million.

  • Territorial gains strengthened the military and economic position of the United States.


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Annexing the Philippines the world.

For Annexation

  • Believed the United States had a duty to spread its values overseas.

  • Philippines had economic and strategic value that should not fall into the hands of other countries.

Controversy raged in the United States over whether to annex the Philippines.

Against Annexation

  • Believed annexation would violate the ideal of self-government

  • Did not want oppression to occur; The United States should not export racism and violence

  • Some Americans believed annexation would increase immigration to the United States.


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The Philippines the world.

  • The U.S. Senate narrowly approved annexation of the Philippines in February 1899.

  • Fighting broke out in the Philippines. Filipino independence fighters battled U.S. soldiers for three years.

  • Filipino voters did have a voice in government. They were able to elect members to the lower house of their legislature. They could elect members of both houses in 1916.

  • On July 4, 1946, the United States finally granted full independence to the Philippines.


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Annexing the Philippines the world.

  • Arguments for Annexation

    • U.S. had a duty to spread its values overseas (educate, uplift, civilize and Christianize- McKinley)

    • Philippines needed for refueling and supply as well as military. Get others before other countries (Germany) do.

  • Opponents

    • Anti-Imperialist League in June 1908.

    • Annexing Philippine went against U.S. values

    • Are we exporting oppression to the Philippines

    • Open the door to a new flood of immigrants from the Philippines. Unions against it.

  • American Rule

    • Annexation passed after a fierce debate on Feb. 6, 1899.

    • Fighting broke out in the Philippines lead by Aquinaldo who feel they are independent.

    • After 3 years of rebellion- 4,000 U.S. soldiers and some 220, 000 Filipinos had died (mainly due to disease.)

    • Goal for Philippines- prepare it for independence, much like any U.S. State. Finally in 1946 Philippines were granted full independence.


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Annexing the Philippines the world.

  • What two reasons were used to justify annexation of the Philippines?

  • Why might other nations have gone to war against the United States to gain control of the Philippines?

  • Why did some groups in the U.S. oppose annexing the Philippines?

  • Did the U.S. honor its stated goal of preparing the Philippines for independence?



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The Price of Freedom- Website (01:36)

Spanish American War- 1898-1902


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Where and What (01:36)

Who

Causes

Spanish policies in Cuba- Human rights- Butcher Weyler

U.S. Sympathy to Cuban rebels.

de Lome Letter

Yellow Press (Journalism)

Sinking of the Maine

Jingoism (Hawks)

Imperialism- U.S. power play

Economics- U.S. planters and

investors.

Spanish-American War

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists

After the War


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Where and What (01:36)

Who

Causes

United States

McKinley, T.Roosevelt and Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers,

Navy- Admiral Dewey and

Aquinaldo

Pulitzer and Hearst- Publishers

Cuba

Spanish and General Weyler

Cuban rebels and Jose Marti

Spanish policies in Cuba- Human rights- Butcher Weyler

U.S. Sympathy to Cuban rebels.

de Lome Letter

Yellow Press (Journalism)

Sinking of the Maine

Jingoism (Hawks)

Imperialism- U.S. power play

Economics- U.S. planters and

investors.

Spanish-American War

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists

After the War


Slide30 l.jpg

Where and What (01:36)

Who

Causes

United States

McKinley, T.Roosevelt and Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers,

Navy- Admiral Dewey and

Aquinaldo

Pulitzer and Hearst- Publishers

Cuba

Spanish and General Weyler

Cuban rebels and Jose Marti

Spanish policies in Cuba- Human rights- Butcher Weyler

U.S. Sympathy to Cuban rebels.

de Lome Letter

Yellow Press (Journalism)

Sinking of the Maine

Jingoism (Hawks)

Imperialism- U.S. power play

Economics- U.S. planters and

investors.

Philippines

T. Roosevelt- Asst.Sec. of Navy send Commodore Dewey.

Destroys Spanish Navy-Manila Bay

Cuba

Havana Harbor

Kettle and San Juan Hill- Santiago

Battle of Santiago Bay

Spanish-American War

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists

After the War


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Where and What (01:36)

Who

Causes

United States

McKinley, T.Roosevelt and Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers,

Navy- Admiral Dewey and

Aquinaldo

Pulitzer and Hearst- Publishers

Cuba

Spanish and General Weyler

Cuban rebels and Jose Marti

Spanish policies in Cuba- Human rights- Butcher Weyler

U.S. Sympathy to Cuban rebels.

de Lome Letter

Yellow Press (Journalism)

Sinking of the Maine

Jingoism (Hawks)

Imperialism- U.S. power play

Economics- U.S. planters and

investors.

Philippines

T. Roosevelt- Asst.Sec. of Navy send Commodore Dewey.

Destroys Spanish Navy-Manila Bay

Cuba

Havana Harbor

Kettle and San Juan Hill

Battle of Santiago Bay

Spanish-American War

4 months of war -“Splendid little war”

$250 million and over 2,000 soldier deaths (mostly from yellow fever)

Spain gives up all claims to Cuba, cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.

Philippines turned over to U.S. for $20 million.

U.S. now has colonies of over 100,000 sq. miles and 10 million people.

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists

After the War


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Where and What (01:36)

Who

Causes

United States

McKinley, T.Roosevelt and Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers,

Navy- Admiral Dewey and

Aquinaldo

Pulitzer and Hearst- Publishers

Cuba

Spanish and General Weyler

Cuban rebels and Jose Marti

Spanish policies in Cuba- Human rights- Butcher Weyler

U.S. Sympathy to Cuban rebels.

de Lome Letter

Yellow Press (Journalism)

Sinking of the Maine

Jingoism (Hawks)

Imperialism- U.S. power play

Economics- U.S. planters and

investors.

Philippines

T. Roosevelt- Asst.Sec. of Navy send Commodore Dewey.

Destroys Spanish Navy-Manila Bay

Cuba

Havana Harbor

Kettle and San Juan Hill

Battle of Santiago Bay

Spanish-American War

4 months of war -“Splendid little war”

$250 million and over 2,000 soldier deaths (mostly from yellow fever)

Spain gives up all claims to Cuba, cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.

Philippines turned over to U.S. for $20 million.

U.S. now has colonies of over 100,000 sq. miles and 10 million people.

Were opposed to empire

building- goes against

American values and beliefs.

Opposed to annexing Philippines

and administration and pacification.

U.S can not be a democracy and an empire.

Do not want a war with Japan over Pacific territories.

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists

After the War


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Where and What (01:36)

Who

Causes

United States

McKinley, T.Roosevelt and Rough Riders, Buffalo Soldiers,

Navy- Admiral Dewey and

Aquinaldo

Pulitzer and Hearst- Publishers

Cuba

Spanish and General Weyler

Cuban rebels and Jose Marti

Spanish policies in Cuba- Human rights- Butcher Weyler

U.S. Sympathy to Cuban rebels.

de Lome Letter

Yellow Press (Journalism)

Sinking of the Maine

Jingoism (Hawks)

Imperialism- U.S. power play

Economics- U.S. planters and

investors.

Philippines

T. Roosevelt- Asst.Sec. of Navy send Commodore Dewey.

Destroys Spanish Navy-Manila Bay

Cuba

Havana Harbor

Kettle and San Juan Hill

Battle of Santiago Bay

Spanish-American War

Teller Amendment- After war Cuba would be independent.

Platt Amendment- Cuba

1) No foreign powers allowed in 2) No high foreign debts for Cuba 3) Lease Guantanamo Base to US 4) US would intervene in Cuba

Foracker Act- Puerto Rico- Colony and territory- protectorate.

Philippines- Revolt against US- 3 years pacification- Independence in 1946

4 months of war -“Splendid little war”

$250 million and over 2,000 soldier deaths (mostly from yellow fever)

Spain gives up allclaims to Cuba, cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.

Philippines turned over to U.S. for $20 million.

U.S. now has colonies of over 100,000 sq. miles and 10 million people.

Were opposed to empire

building- goes against

American values and beliefs.

Opposed to annexing Philippines

and administration and pacification.

U.S can not be a democracy and an empire.

Do not want a war with Japan over Pacific territories.

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists

After the War



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Where and what (01:36)

Who

Causes

Spanish-American War

After the War

Results of the War

Anti-Imperialists


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