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PRONUNCIATION. OF THE ENDING – ED. -ED as a Verbal Ending. The ending – ed of the past tense and the past participle of verbs is pronounced:. -ED as a Verbal Ending. /Id/ after d and t : add - added lift - lifted end -ended rest - rested defend - defended wait - waited

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pronunciation

PRONUNCIATION

OF THE ENDING

– ED

ed as a verbal ending
-ED as a Verbal Ending
  • The ending –ed of the past tense and the past participle of verbs is pronounced:
ed as a verbal ending1
-ED as a Verbal Ending
  • /Id/ after d and t:

add - added lift - lifted

end -ended rest - rested

defend - defended wait - waited

pretend - pretended

ed as a verbal ending2
-ED as a Verbal Ending
  • /t/ after voiceless sounds other than t:

/p/ - dropped, shaped, sipped, wrapped

/k/ - dropped, locked, marked, wrecked

/f/ - coughed, laughed, photographed, puffed

/θ/ - bathed, toothed

/s/ - danced, placed, kissed, missed

/∫/ - brushed, flashed, rushed, wished

/t∫/ - pinched, reached, touched, watched

ed as a verbal ending3
-ED as a Verbal Ending
  • /d/ after voiced sounds other than d:

/i: / - keyed, guaranteed

/I/ - pitied, envied, worried, carried

/ɑ:/ - barred, scarred

/ɜ:/ - preferred, referred,

/ə/ answered, bothered, gathered

/eI/- stayed, delayed, played, weighed

ed as a verbal ending4
-ED as a Verbal Ending
  • /d/ after voiced sounds other than d:

/b/ - disturbed, robbed, grabbed

/g/ - begged, dragged

/m/ - aimed, seemed

/ð/ - clothed, bathed, mouthed

/z/ - dazed, pleased, caused

/l/ - called, killed, rolled, boiled, mailed

ed as an adjectival ending
-ED as an Adjectival Ending
  • the past participles of some verbs are used as adjectives. Then, a second syllable is added even if the base form does not end in a /t/ or /d/ sound, and the "-ed" ending will be pronounced as /id/.
ed as an adjectival ending1
-ED as an Adjectival Ending
  • The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:

aged blessed crooked dogged learned naked

ragged wicked wretched

ed as an adjectival ending2
-ED as an Adjectival Ending
  • So we say:

the aged man /Id/

a blessed nuisance /Id/

a dogged persistence /Id/

a learned professor - the professor, who was truly learned /Id/

a wretched beggar - the beggar was wretched /Id/

ed as an adjectival ending3
-ED as an Adjectival Ending
  • But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:

he aged quickly /d/

he blessed me /t/

they dogged him /d/

he has learned well /d/ or /t/

ed as an adjectival ending4
-ED as an Adjectival Ending
  • The exceptions doesn\'t apply to teaching pronunciation of English past tense verbs, just past participles when they are used as adjectives.
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