Pronunciation
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PRONUNCIATION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PRONUNCIATION. OF THE ENDING – ED. -ED as a Verbal Ending. The ending – ed of the past tense and the past participle of verbs is pronounced:. -ED as a Verbal Ending. /Id/ after d and t : add - addedlift - lifted end -endedrest - rested defend - defendedwait - waited

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PRONUNCIATION

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Pronunciation

PRONUNCIATION

OF THE ENDING

– ED


Ed as a verbal ending

-ED as a Verbal Ending

  • The ending –ed of the past tense and the past participle of verbs is pronounced:


Ed as a verbal ending1

-ED as a Verbal Ending

  • /Id/ after d and t:

    add - addedlift - lifted

    end -endedrest - rested

    defend - defendedwait - waited

    pretend - pretended


Ed as a verbal ending2

-ED as a Verbal Ending

  • /t/ after voiceless sounds other than t:

    /p/ - dropped, shaped, sipped, wrapped

    /k/ - dropped, locked, marked, wrecked

    /f/ - coughed, laughed, photographed, puffed

    /θ/ - bathed, toothed

    /s/ - danced, placed, kissed, missed

    /∫/ - brushed, flashed, rushed, wished

    /t∫/ - pinched, reached, touched, watched


Ed as a verbal ending3

-ED as a Verbal Ending

  • /d/ after voiced sounds other than d:

    /i: / - keyed, guaranteed

    /I/ - pitied, envied, worried, carried

    /ɑ:/ - barred, scarred

    /ɜ:/ - preferred, referred,

    /ə/ answered, bothered, gathered

    /eI/- stayed, delayed, played, weighed


Ed as a verbal ending4

-ED as a Verbal Ending

  • /d/ after voiced sounds other than d:

    /b/ - disturbed, robbed, grabbed

    /g/ - begged, dragged

    /m/ - aimed, seemed

    /ð/ - clothed, bathed, mouthed

    /z/ - dazed, pleased, caused

    /l/ - called, killed, rolled, boiled, mailed


Ed as an adjectival ending

-ED as an Adjectival Ending

  • the past participles of some verbs are used as adjectives. Then, a second syllable is added even if the base form does not end in a /t/ or /d/ sound, and the "-ed" ending will be pronounced as /id/.


Ed as an adjectival ending1

-ED as an Adjectival Ending

  • The following -ed words used as adjectives are pronounced with /Id/:

    aged blessed crooked dogged learned naked

    ragged wicked wretched


Ed as an adjectival ending2

-ED as an Adjectival Ending

  • So we say:

    the aged man /Id/

    a blessed nuisance /Id/

    a dogged persistence /Id/

    a learned professor - the professor, who was truly learned /Id/

    a wretched beggar - the beggar was wretched /Id/


Ed as an adjectival ending3

-ED as an Adjectival Ending

  • But when used as real verbs (past simple and past participle), the normal rules apply and we say:

    he aged quickly /d/

    he blessed me /t/

    they dogged him /d/

    he has learned well /d/ or /t/


Ed as an adjectival ending4

-ED as an Adjectival Ending

  • The exceptions doesn't apply to teaching pronunciation of English past tense verbs, just past participles when they are used as adjectives.


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