Nuclear chemistry
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Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 18. Quick Review. Mass # Symbol Element Name or symbol – Mass # Parts of a Reaction Reactants  Products. Types of Radiation. Alpha emission or decay ( a ) –helium atom 4 2 He 238 92 U  4 2 He + 234 90 Th

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Nuclear Chemistry

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Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 18


Quick review

Quick Review

  • Mass # Symbol

  • Element Name or symbol – Mass #

  • Parts of a Reaction

    Reactants  Products


Types of radiation

Types of Radiation

  • Alpha emission or decay (a) –helium atom 42He

  • 23892U  42He + 23490Th

  • Beta emission or decay (b)– 0-1e in the products

  • 23490Th  23491Pa + 0-1e

  • Gamma emission or decay (g) - 00g

  • 23892U  42He + 23490Th + 00g


Types of radiation particles

Types of Radiation & Particles

  • Positron emission or decay - 0+1e

  • 2211Na  0+1e + 2210Ne

  • Electron capture – beta particle in the reactants

  • 20180Hg + 0-1e  + 20179Au

  • Neutron emission or decay– 10n

  • 20984Po 10n + 20084Po

  • Proton – 11H or 11p


Balancing nuclear equations

Balancing Nuclear Equations

  • Mass # and the atomic # totals must be the same for reactants and the products.

  • 3919K  3517Cl + ___

  • 20682Pb  0-1e + ___

  • 23894Pu + ___ 42He + 23592U


Writing balanced nuclear equations

Writing Balanced Nuclear Equations

  • Alpha decay of Cu-68

  • Gamma emission of Thorium-235

  • Positron emission of P-18

  • Astatine-210 releasing 3 neutrons

  • Electron capture of Ti-45


Half life and nuclear stability

Half-Life and Nuclear Stability

  • Radioactive isotopes or nuclides all decay because they are unstable, some just breakdown much faster than others

  • Half-life – amount of time for half of the original sample to decay

  • For two samples of the same isotope, regardless of the sample size, after one half-life, only half of the original amount of sample remains.


Sample half lives

Sample Half-lives

  • IsotopesHalf-Live

  • Carbon – 145730 years

  • Sodium – 2415 hours

  • Bismuth – 21260.5 seconds

  • Polonium – 215 0.0018 seconds

  • Thorium – 23075400 years

  • Thorium – 23424.1 days

  • Uranium – 2357.0 x 108 years

  • Uranium – 2384.46 x 109 years


Half life sample problems

Half-life sample problems

  • Barium – 139 has a half-life of 86 minutes. If you originally have a 10 gram sample of Barium-139, how much will be left after 258 minutes?


Half life sample problems1

Half-life sample problems

  • How many days will it take 50 grams of Radon – 222 (half-life of 3.82 days) to decay to 3.125 grams?


Half life sample problems2

Half-life sample problems

  • If a sample of Cesium-135 decays from 10 grams to 2.5 grams over a period of 84 days, what is the half-life of Cesium-135?


Fission versus fusion

Fission versus Fusion

  • Fusion – combining two smaller nuclei into one heavier, more stable nucleus.

    32He + 11H  42He + 01e

  • Fission – splitting a large unstable nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.

    20984Po 12552Te + 8432Ge


Sample fission reaction

Sample fission reaction


Sample fusion reaction

Sample fusion reaction


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