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Chapter 13. Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence. Presentation Overview. The Use of Multimedia Creating Digital Media Creating Multimedia Artificial Intelligence. Multimedia Web Pages Flash and Shockwave are leading sources of Web movies and games

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Chapter 13

Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence


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Presentation Overview

  • The Use of Multimedia

  • Creating Digital Media

  • Creating Multimedia

  • Artificial Intelligence


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Multimedia Web Pages

Flash and Shockwaveare leading sources of Web movies and games

Shockwave– more intensive format, requiring more time to download larger 3-D movies

Flash– faster and commonly used for cartoonlike imagery

both provide fast, easily created movies that transmit over Internet as part of a Web page

The Use of Multimedia


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Educational Tools

schools and colleges use online courses as valuable teaching medium

online courses incorporate sound, images, and videos within a text framework

multimedia tutorials are helpful for special education students because materials are presented in various forms

The Use of Multimedia


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Computer Games

about 50 percent of Americans play computer games on a regular basis

game consoles rival personal computers for power and are priced under $300

online games involve thousands of players and enable them to chat, have adventures, and interact in worlds that exist only inside a computer

The Use of Multimedia


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Computer Games

multimedia PCs are most costly and high-powered computers on consumer market

running a game makes a computer work harder than any other task because it requires fast 3-D video, sound, and networking–often all at once

The Use of Multimedia


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Online Gaming Terminology

The Use of Multimedia


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Online Gaming Terminology (continued)

The Use of Multimedia


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Digitizing– reducing a picture, sound, text, or movie to a series of on-off settings that can be stored on a computer.

Digital media – an advantage over analog data because it can be reproduced an infinite number of times with no degradation of quality.

Creating Digital Media


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Painting and Drawing Programs

Bitmap-based (paint) graphics programs provide tools that users can use to create and edit drawings by changing pixels from white to black or color.

Vector-based (draw) graphics programs provide tools that users can use to create, edit, and combine mathematically defined geometric shapes.

Creating Digital Media


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Creating Digital Media

Some Standard Graphics File Formats


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Graphics File Formats

Native format – format that is specific to the application in which it is made

Exporting– saving graphic in a standard file format

Importing – placing a graphic from a standard file format into another document or file

Data compression – conversion program can compress a bitmap image into another file format that looks almost as good and requires less file space

Creating Digital Media


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Shown here are a compressed bitmap file and an uncompressed bitmap file of the same image

Creating Digital Media


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Vector Graphics

stored as a series of codes representing different shapes, each with a color, size, and starting position

cannot reproduce a detailed image such as a face

wireframe diagram can use three-dimensional techniques to create, using vector graphics, a wireframe that can be stretched and rotated as desired; bitmaps are drawn on top of the wireframe to create a three-dimensional effect

Creating Digital Media


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Clip Art Images

icon-like images that are sizable and can be inserted into the text of a report or Web pages to liven up the screen

somewhat generic, tending to feature items such as images of spinning globes, stop signs, or stylized computers

Creating Digital Media


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Raster Image Editing

Adobe Photoshop and Corel Photo House can edit digitized photographs

digitized photographs are stored as raster images, or a collection of pixels

most common file format used for digitized photos is the Tag Image File Format (TIFF or TIF)

Creating Digital Media


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3-D Modeling Programs

create what appears to be three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface

requires combined talents of an artist and an advanced computer user

requires enormous computing power

Creating Digital Media


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Computer Animation

computer graphic special effects (CG FX) allow users to draw computer animated graphics

far cheaper to create computer animated graphics than use traditional techniques

animated graphics are easily manipulated so that any image can be redrawn until it is just right

Creating Digital Media


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The sound of someone singing is captured by sampling the sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

Creating Digital Media


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Wave Files sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

records any kind of sound by storing masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly how much voltage to send out to the speakers each fraction of a second in order to reproduce the sound

a human voice sounds very real at a sampling rate of 11 KHz

clear, sharp musical reproductions are recorded at 44 KHz

Creating Digital Media


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Musical Instrument Digital Interface sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

digitally simulates musical instruments

MIDI file only needs to know which notes to play on each instrument to reproduce music

used to create background music for games

MIDI files reproduce rather poorly on PCs

Creating Digital Media


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MP3 Sound Compression Technique sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

takes a wave file and reduces it by 90%, leaving behind a high-quality reproduction

uses a data compression system that works in a similar fashion to JPEG or GIF formats

possible for a device the size of a credit card to hold an entire library of music

Creating Digital Media


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Digital Movies sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

significantly enhance the movie-viewing experience through their high-quality sound and pictures

do not degrade with each showing and therefore do not skip, buzz, or flicker

Creating Digital Media


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Movie Compression Techniques sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

MPEG file format – movie equivalent of the MP3 music format

MPEG2 file format – high-quality format DVD players use

MOV file format – apple format

AVI file format – older Windows format

Flash – moving images for Web pages

Creating Digital Media


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Digital Cable sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

offers wide selection of stations, typically several hundred, with the capability of expanding to 2,000 stations

provides clearer picture but takes longer to come into focus

provides easily accessible information buttons and scheduling data

Creating Digital Media


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Digital Video Recorder (DVR) sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

operates as a digital TV cable box and can also perform the job of HD TV support

records TV on a hard drive inside the box

is able to pause and rewind live TV for later viewing

Creating Digital Media


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High-Definition TV sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

has more lines and more pixels—thus, higher resolution

offers sharper picture quality

requires stations to buy expensive new hardware

increased bandwidth forces some TV cable networks to remove channels from their list

Creating Digital Media


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Steps in Creating Multimedia sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

plan the work

create the elements to be included in the work

combine the elements to create the work

write the work to a portable storage medium such as a CD-ROM, or post the work on the Web

Creating Multimedia


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Sequential Page-Based Multimedia sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

sequence of pages or slides appearing one after the other and incorporating elements such as text, sound, graphics, and video

material is presented in a fixed order

appropriate for sales presentations, lectures, or step-by-step descriptions of how to accomplish a task

Creating Multimedia


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Hypertext Page-Based Multimedia sound and then storing the measurements in binary format for use by the computer.

set of pages containing links that can be followed at will

user can move from page to page or click on links to graphics, text, sound, or video files

author prepares a tree diagram showing links between pages

Creating Multimedia


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This tree diagram shows links between pages in a simple multimedia presentation.

Creating Multimedia


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Movie-Based Multimedia multimedia presentation.

work can be a movie or series of movies that stop from time to time, enabling users to follow links

a storyboard is prepared to plan sequential page-based multimedia or movie-based multimedia

storyboards consist of sketches of the pages or frames as they will appear in the final work

Creating Multimedia


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Creating the Content of the Work multimedia presentation.

text prepared using a word processing program

graphics created in painting, drawing, or 3-D modeling programs, or taken from clip art or stock sources

images produced by traditional means or scanned and edited in a graphics program

Creating Multimedia


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Hardware/Software for Creating Multimedia multimedia presentation.

sound digitizing card enables computer to capture and process digitized sounds

programs such as SoundEdit and Deck capture and edit sounds

video digitizing card captures and digitizes video images and sound

programs such as VideoVision and Adobe Premier capture and edit images

Creating Multimedia


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Combining the Elements multimedia presentation.

simplest works are documents that move from page to page invoking multimedia elements placed on the pages

more complex works use PDF files incorporating pages created in other programs such as graphics, presentation, or page layout programs

most complex works save elements as single tracks that are combined and synchronized into a single file

Creating Multimedia


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The goal of multimedia presentation.artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop computers that can perform functions normally reserved for humans: thinking, talking, seeing, feeling, walking, and learning from their mistakes.

Artificial Intelligence


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AI Technology Trends multimedia presentation.

moving toward limited, focused applications

goal of AI has shifted to augmenting human capabilities rather than supplanting them

three primary areas of artificial intelligence applications are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics

Artificial Intelligence


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Three primary areas of artificial intelligence applications are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Artificial Intelligence


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Cognitive Science Application are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

the study and simulation of the human mind

based on biology, neurology, psychology, and other disciplines

focuses on researching how the human brain thinks and learns

types of applications are intelligent agents, experts systems, data mining, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks

Artificial Intelligence


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Intelligent Agent are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

provides an intuitive assistant (agent) that can utilize knowledge based on past experience and predictions of likely future behavior

agents goal is to reduce difficult tasks down to a few simple mouse clicks that can be completed quickly

Artificial Intelligence


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Expert System are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

embodies human expertise in a particular field

works by questioning the user and then drawing a conclusion from the information provided

a knowledge engineer specializes in building knowledge bases of rules the computer can prove or disprove

an inference engine asks the questions and draws the conclusions

Artificial Intelligence


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Data Mining are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

finds new ways to use masses of data stored in databases of large corporations

sorts existing data to provide more carefully targeted marketing and pricing of products

able to determine with good accuracy whether a new offering will succeed or fail

Artificial Intelligence


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Genetic Algorithms are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

applies a Darwinian (survival of the fittest) method to problem solving

uses a computer to create thousands or millions of slightly varied designs and then tests and selects the best of them

chooses most successful designs for new mutations, producing crossovers by mixing together traits of the survivors

Artificial Intelligence


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Fuzzy Logic System are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

attempts to model human reasoning by allowing for approximations and incomplete input data

allows users to input “fuzzy” data

works more naturally with the user by piecing together an answer similar to what a traditional expert system uses

Artificial Intelligence


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Comparison of traditional SQL query and are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.equivalent fuzzy logic query

Artificial Intelligence


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Neural Network are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

simulates the physical workings of the human mind

generally starts off with only an input source, some form of output, and a goal

learns by trial and error how a desired output affects the input

the “gain” controls the change rate of the firing threshold of the neurons which, in turn, controls how fast a system will learn or unlearn something

Artificial Intelligence


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Natural Interface Applications are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Speech recognition – computer can take dictation and perform requested actions

Natural language interfaces – goal is a machine that can read a set of news articles on any topic and understand what it has read

Artificial Intelligence


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Natural Interface Applications are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Virtual reality – characterized in terms of its immersiveness, which measures how real the simulated world feels and how well it can make users accept it as their own

Mental interfaces – uses sensors mounted around the skull to read alpha brain waves; measures brain activity and interprets it as a command

Artificial Intelligence


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Robots as Androids are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Robots – machines capable of independent movement

Androids – simulated humans

Visual perception – computer security programs exist that recognize an individual human thumbprint or face

Audio perception – identifying a single voice and interpreting what is being said amid background noise is a goal of programmers

Artificial Intelligence


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Robots as Androids are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Tactile perception – robot must be able to feel an object AND must be able to sense how much pressure to apply to that object; must be dexterous enough to perform small actions such as placing a chip at a precise spot in a circuit board

Locomotion – most mobile robots use wheels or treads which limit mobility but make them easier to control

Artificial Intelligence


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Robots as Androids are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Navigation – robot can plot a course to a location using an internal “map” built up by a navigational perception system

Artificial Intelligence


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On the Horizon are cognitive science, natural interfaces, and robotics.

Based on the information presented in this chapter and your own experience, what do you think is on the horizon?


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