Annual Refresher Training. UGA Radiation Safety. Why do I need to take RSO’s Annual Refresher Training ?. To keep your Advanced Radiation Worker (ARW) or Radiation Worker (RW) certificate up to date. To inform you of any new changes to the rad materials program.
UGA Radiation Safety
What do I need to do?
Our experienced staff is here to help and advise you with any radiological question, problem or emergency that you encounter. All you need to do is contact us via telephone or e-mail.
The Environmental Safety Division receptionist is 542-5801
UGA’s Radiation Safety Staff
Jody JacobsRadiation Safety [email protected]
Dennis WidnerRadiation Safety [email protected]
Lauren PalmerRadiation Safety [email protected]
John PyleRadiation Safety TechnicianRad Lab [email protected]
Every permitted radioactive materials laboratory has been issued a hardcopy of this manual.
An electronic copy is also found at our website.
This manual contains all the information needed to successfully run a rad lab at UGA.
All authorized users and radiation workers must be familar with this manual.
99% are dispersable β emitting radioisotopes such as H-3, C-14, P-32, P-33, and S-35.
Of these, highly energetic P-32 has the most potential of causing skin and eye dose.
1% are dispersable gamma emitting radioisotopes such as I-125 or I-131
All radioisotopes are an internal dose hazard !
NO EATING, DRINKING, SMOKING OR CHEWING
IN RAD-USE LABORATORIES !
Radioiodine users should get a thyroid bioassay within 10 days of using radioiodine (I-125 & I-131) to measure thyroid uptake and to establish dose assessment.
All potential Radioiodine users should get a baseline count before using the material.
Dosimetry badges are worn between the neck and waist to monitor radiation exposure.
The badges are sent off campus to a qualified vendor laboratory to determine the amount of radiation exposure received.
Radiation exposure is measured in units of REM or milliREM.Dosimetry Badges are used to monitor personnel radiation exposure
DDE = deep dose equivalent (whole body penetrating exposure)
TEDE = total effective dose equivalent (DDE plus dose from any intake of radioactive material)
SDE = shallow dose equivalent whole body (skin dose, whole body)
SDEME = shallow dose equivalent monitored extremity (extremity dose)
LDE = lens dose equivalent (lens of eye exposure)
Low Energy Beta Emitters monitor radiation exposure.
(no badge required)
High Energy Beta and/or Gamma Emitters
(badge normally required)
I-125Dosimetry badges are not required for persons working exclusively with low energy beta emitting radioactive materials.
Finger ring dosimetry badges are used to measure radiation exposure to the hands and should be worn on “holding” hand under your gloves.
Ring badges are used infrequently and only required for certain situations, such as for persons handling >1mCi of the radioisotopes P-32 and I-125.Monitoring Radiation Exposure to the Hands
Users of high energy beta (P-32) or gamma emitting isotopes must survey their work areas for radiation levels.
Portable instruments typically read out in units of milliRem per hour (mR/hr).
Dose rate surveys are performed by
holding the GM counter at waist level at the lowest setting and measuring with the probe 1 foot away from the items to be surveyed. Some items like radwaste containers must be surveyed on contact.Radiation levels in the work area are measured by using portable instruments
Radioactive contamination is the presence of radioactive material in an unwanted location.
Transferable must survey their work areas for radiation levels.
Most common type of contamination.
May be spread from one surface to another.
Easily removed by normal surface cleaning methods.
Significant risk of personnel contamination.
Easily found by wipe testing.
Most frequently occurs after liquid spills on porous surfaces.
Not easily spread or removed by cleaning.
May become transferable by physical or chemical interactions.
Not detectable by wipe testing.
May be found by scanning with a portable instrument.Types of Radioactive Contamination
Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) and Gamma counters are used to measure wipe results. Instrument readouts in cpm are converted to dpm using our counting efficiency of 33%. Final results are expressed as dpm/100cm2.
Contamination used to measure wipe results. Instrument readouts in
Cover benches with absorbent paper in radiological work areas.
Use catch trays when working with radioactive liquids (secondary containment).
Wear protective clothing.
Perform transferable contamination surveys of work areas.
Perform personnel contamination monitoring (minimum hand/shoe scan) after working with radioactive materials and/or prior to exiting the area.How do we manage the risks associated with radioactive contamination?
Personnel used to measure wipe results. Instrument readouts in Contamination Monitoring
Scan your hands and shoes after working with
Liquid Scintillation Fluid (LSF) is actually the detector and has a finite sample capacity. Sample volume should not surpass 33% of the counting vials capacity. 67% should be LSF for proper counting technique . In either type vial, the vial should be full.
NOTE: Liquid Scintillation sample should be liquid with no solids or with extreme color, these will “quench” the results giving you less radiation than what’s really there.
Proper dark adaption of samples or wipe tests is very important in achieving correct values for your background and sample results.Store your sample racks in complete darkness for 10-15 minutes before counting. This can be achieved by making a Dark Adaption (DA) Protocol and counting this rack before your sample/wipe test rack.
Pre and Post Backgrounds, B1 and B2 should read about the same afterproper dark adaption.
Radioactive half life is the amount of time required for the radioactivity of a substance to be reduced to one half of it’s original activity.
Half life is very important
and is used to classify
radwaste as either
short-lived or long-lived.
C-14 using which of the following units?
8 daysHalf Life Values for Commonly Used Isotopes
Rad surveys are
performed after using rad materials or rad waste. This means documentation of several surveys per month. All rad users must do wipe testing for contamination, but P-32 and Gamma users must also do dose rate surveys as well. See Chapter 6 in the Rad Manual.
Radiological surveys are to be performed in the month that they are due and all must be reported by the end of the month to the Radiation Safety Office. Surveys can be submitted with signature by campus mail, scanned and emailed or emailed from the surveyor’s UGA mail account without signature.
By regulation, every 6 months, each rad permitted lab will have to do a physical inventory to verify the rad materials on hand in the lab. This is compared to the RSO
inventory records for
Locations where radioactive materials are used or stored must have a “Caution, Radioactive Materials” sticker on the standard laboratory door sign posted at the entrance.Laboratory Door Caution Signs
The “Notice to Employees” must be posted in a location where it is readily visible to anyone entering or exiting the Radioactive Materials Area.
Either of the two notices displayed here are acceptable.
Closed cabinets or similar containers, such as refrigerators, must be labeled if they contain radioactive materials.Caution Labels Used Within the Laboratory
A. Looks good to me.B. Improper use of rad tape.
C. No activity statement.
D. No generator labeling.
B, C & D
B, C, D, E & F
C, D & E
Scint vials that
If found, the drum will be returned to the lab for you to sort out. The liquids must be poured into carboys and analyzed.
Chematix waste card
Empty containers should always be marked “empty”, in addition to the standard labels.
This practice allows the radioactive materials labels to be reused and helps prevent containers with potential internal contamination from being improperly used.Labeling Empty Radwaste Containers
Click the link below to record your participation and print a certificate. A record will be emailed to you and the Radiation Safety Office.