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Prepared by: Cesar Mendoza Applied Technology Teacher. PROCESS CONTROL REVISION CLASS. What is a PROCESS?. PROCESS is a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular result. . Examples of PROCESS: Cooling – Cooling a room with AC

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Prepared by cesar mendoza applied technology teacher

Prepared by: Cesar Mendoza

Applied Technology Teacher

PROCESS CONTROL REVISION CLASS


What is a process
What is a PROCESS?

PROCESS is a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular result.

Examples of PROCESS:

Cooling – Cooling a room with AC

Cooking – Cooking food



Type of process control
Type of Process control

Automatic

Manual


Measurement system
Measurement System

TRANSDUCERis the primary component of both manual and automatic measurement instruments. (Sometimes called Sensor)

TRANSDUCER converts the measured physical quantity from one form to another.

Example: Thermocouple -> –> voltage


Instrument characteristic
Instrument Characteristic

ACCURACYof an instrument is how close a measured value is to the true value.

Good Accuracy

Poor Accuracy


Accuracy how close measured value to true value
ACCURACYhow close measured value to true value.

Good Accuracy

Poor Accuracy


Instrument characteristic1
Instrument Characteristic

PRECISION – ability of instrument to give the similar reading when the same physical quantity is measured more than once

Good Precision (but not accurate)

Poor Precision


Precision similar reading for many measurement
PRECISION – similar reading for many measurement

Good Precision

But not accurate

Poor Precision


Instrument characteristic2
Instrument Characteristic

RANGEthe minimum and maximum values that the instrument can measure.

Max = 50 C

Min = -40 C

Range = -40 – 50 C

Max =120F

Min = 40F

Range = 40 - 120


Range minimum and maximum values instrument can measure
RANGEminimum and maximum values instrument can measure

.

Max =260

Min = 0

Range = 0-260 kph


Instrument characteristic3
Instrument Characteristic

SENSITIVITYof instrument is its ability to detect small changes in the measured quantity

Sensitivity = Change in Output / Change in Input

Sensitivity of Thermocouple: 0.25 mV / C


Linearity output signal is proportional to the input physical quantity
LINEARITY output signal is proportional to the input physical quantity

Linear Device

Non-Linear Device


Types of measurement error
Types of Measurement Error

Random errors -small differences in the output reading when the same quantity is measured a number of times.

Systematic errors are errors in the output readings of a measurement instrument that are unlikely to be revealed by repeated readings.


Two main sources of systematic errors
Two main sources of systematic errors

system disturbance due to measurement

effect of modifying inputs


Example of systematic error
Example of systematic error

Zero Adjust

Parallax


Review question
REVIEW QUESTION:

___________ is a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular result.

_____________ is the primary component of both manual and automatic measurement instruments.

_____________converts the measured physical quantity from one form to another.

___________ of an instrument is how close a measured value is to the true value.

___________ability of instrument to give the similar reading when the same physical quantity is measured more than once


Review question1
REVIEW QUESTION:

_____________ the minimum and maximum values that the instrument can measure.

___________of instrument is its ability to detect small changes in the measured quantity.

_____________ output signal is proportional to the input physical quantity.

_____________ small differences in the output reading when the same quantity is measured a number of times.

_____________ are errors in the output readings of a measurement instrument that are unlikely to be revealed by repeated readings.


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

MANUAL PROCESS

AUTOMATIC PROCESS

DIGITAL PROCESS

1. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

ACCURATE AND PRECISE

ACCURATE – NOT PRECISE

PRECISE – NOT ACCURATE

NOT ACCURATE- NOT PRECISE

2. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

ACCURATE AND PRECISE

ACCURATE – NOT PRECISE

PRECISE – NOT ACCURATE

NOT ACCURATE- NOT PRECISE

3. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

ACCURATE AND PRECISE

ACCURATE – NOT PRECISE

PRECISE – NOT ACCURATE

NOT ACCURATE- NOT PRECISE

4. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

ZERO ADJUST ERROR

RANNDOM ERROR

PARALLAX ERROR

EYE ERROR

5. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

ZERO ADJUST ERROR

RANDOM ERROR

PARALLAX ERROR

EYE ERROR

6. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

FLOW METER

SOLENOID VALVE

MANUAL VALVE

SERVO VALVE

7. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

FLOW METER

SOLENOID VALVE

MANUAL VALVE

SERVO VALVE

8. ANSWER: ___________________


REVIEW QUESTION:

IDENTIFY THE FIGURE

FLOW METER

SOLENOID VALVE

MANUAL VALVE

SERVO VALVE

9. ANSWER: ___________________


What is system
What is SYSTEM?

SYSTEM is set of elements that accomplish a defined objective.

ELEMENT OF CONTROL SYSTEM


Input

An external physical quantity is converted to an electrical signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

INPUT

An external physical quantity is converted to an electrical signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity


Output
OUTPUT signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

At the output, the internal physical quantity is converted to a visual display, an audible indication or a mechanical output

Buzzer, LED and motor as output devices


Process
PROCESS signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

The process sub-system changes the signal according to the requirement

To compare the two input signals and decide which of them is larger


Logic gate
LOGIC GATE signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

To combine two or more signals.


Latch
LATCH signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

To hold or latch a signal for some time until it is needed.


To amplify or increase the level of a signal. signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity


Signal
SIGNAL signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

A signalcarries information, and this can be digital information or analog information.

Digital information can have only two states, either on (high) or off (low)


Analog signal
ANALOG SIGNAL signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

Analog information can have a range of continuous values (minimum to maximum)


Driver
DRIVER signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

Driver type of process sub-system that is used to drive the output sub-system.


Kitchen scale system
KITCHEN SCALE SYSTEM signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity


Types of system
TYPES OF SYSTEM signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM - Systems that use sensors to detect and monitor the output of the system.

The output information from the sensors is called feedback

CONTROLLER

ACTUATOR

PROCESS

MEASUREMENT

(FEEDBACK)


Open loop system
OPEN LOOP SYSTEM signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

Open-loop systems do not use sensors for feedback, and are independent of the output

EXAMPLE: OPEN LOOP


Heating system
HEATING SYSTEM signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

Set Point

PROCESSOR

(CONTROLLER)

BOILER

(ACTUATOR)

HOT AIR

(PROCESS)

SENSOR

(MEASUREMENT)

FEEDBACK


Automatic night lamp
AUTOMATIC NIGHT LAMP signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

SYSTEM DIAGRAM


Circuit diagram
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity


Review question2
REVIEW QUESTION: signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

An external physical quantity is converted to an electrical signal at the __________

______________is set of elements that accomplish a defined objective.

At the ___________, the internal physical quantity is converted to a visual display, an audible indication or a mechanical output.

____________ process sub system that compare the two input signals and decide which of them is larger.

______________carries information, and this can be digital information or analoginformation


Review question3
REVIEW QUESTION: signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantity

_______________Systems that use sensors to detect and monitor the output of the system.

_______________ do not use sensors for feedback, and are independent of the output.

________________type of process sub-system that is used to drive the output sub-system.

________________information can have only two states, either on (high) or off (low).

________________information can have a range of continuous values (minimum to maximum)


Good luck in your exam
Good luck in your signal at the input, and the signal changes with respect to the physical quantityEXAM


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