The Contribution of Research to Social Change. Diane Ross, Associate Professor Otterbein University Westerville, Ohio USA. Essential Questions for the week. How does your interest in peace and social justice move your areas of inquiry?
Diane Ross, Associate Professor
Westerville, Ohio USA
Survey Previous Research Foundation- Monday
Begin to formulate your own personal research agenda
Introduce Research Paradigms
Gallery Walk of Critical Feedback
Introduce Peace Research/ Galtung theory of Peace Research
Introduce Action Research Paradigm- Tuesday
Participate in a Action Research Activity
Introduce Appreciative Inquiry Paradigm- Wednesday
Participate in Appreciative Inquiry Activity
Introduce structure of paper and research tools (including online databases)- Thursday
Participate in Critical Colleague Activity- Friday
Share personal research protocol with the class/ Graded assignment
Research is an organized studywith methodical investigation into a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action basedon the facts discovered
Research is a frame of mind….a perspective that people take toward objects and activities
(Bogdan and Biklen 1992: 223)
One of the most important things a change agent does it to articulate the questions…
Because all change processes begin with framing an issue and collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.
1 2 3 collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.What are your three top questions of inquiry?
It is through language that we create the world, because it is nothing until we describe it. And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions. To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe….
Joseph Jaworski, Synchronicity
Inquiry and change are not separate, but are simultaneous. Inquiry is intervention. The seeds of change – the things people think and talk about, discover and learn, and that inform dialogue and inspire images of the future- are implicit in the very first questions that we ask.
We come to know ourselves by bringing to consciousness the process by which our view points are formed…
You will learn what you already know. You need to learn how to generalize significantly what you know.
linguistics, media studies, philology
psychology (at least in part)
Epistemologies and butcher block paper and hang this on the wallOntologies
How we see the world and how we come to know….
The knower and the known cannot be separated
Gap between rich and poor
No single reality
Knowledge is conjectural
Rising Nuclear Age
Global threat to the environment
Ex. Adapting visual methods: Action Research with Kampala Street Children
Ex, Quantitative Research Provides Compelling Evidence for Success of Participatory Development Programme in Uganda
Research Processes butcher block paper and hang this on the wall
Positivist and/or Post-positivist
Ex: Psychosocial Vulnerability and Resilience Measures
For National-Level Monitoring of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children
Ex: Alcohol Consumption in Uganda
Research butcher block paper and hang this on the wall Process:
Systematic Interaction Between Theories and Data
What/ Where/ When
Smaller number of attributes across many cases
Concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena
Larger number of attributes across relatively few cases
Attempts to quantify social phenomena
Collects and analyzes numerical data
Interpretation over quantification
Text -Based Data
Research butcher block paper and hang this on the wall
Constructivist with a Value Orientation for Peace
To move towards social justice, one must be in a constant state of social research.
What questions can you ask to help move this person forward and to help clarify their question….?Gallery Walk….
Social justice is not static or timeless. The theory of justice is understood as an attempt to understand what a society’s actions, practices, and norms mean and to elucidate what a community’s shared understandings are so that they are agreed upon principles of social justice.
(I would say… focused on change…)
Paradigm of Praxis
dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.
scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations
Compare data and hypotheses
Compare data with values related to peace
Data must be explicit
Comparison carried out with rigor
Human behavior critics
… and to help clarify their question….?rejects the notion of researcher neutrality, understanding that the most active researcher is often one who has most at stake in resolving a problematic situation.
Action Research definition and examples: and to help clarify their question….?Readings Tonight
Immersing an individual researcher or research team in the everyday activities of an organization or society, usually for a prolonged period of time, very naturalistic, impossible to gather from laboratory or "clean room" observational studies.
An ethnographic study of rural community literacy practices in Bweyale and their implications for adult literacy education in Uganda
Observation of an experience
From it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience.
Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem(1963), "the banality of evil“
Research is an ethical and political act
Internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for further investigation and analysis.
Knowledge derived is attained through tacit, intuitive or observed phenomena, is deepened through indwelling, focusing, self-searching or dialogue with others, and always needs a medium or base - its frame of reference
Loneliness, Moustakas, Clark
What is it?
Brainstorm with your Critical Colleague
The roots of action research can be found in anthropology, social-psychology, and education. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice (Dewey, 1916, Goodenough, 1963, Lewin, 1946).
then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in about 1944,
research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action
• It is democratic, enabling the participation of all people.
• It is equitable, acknowledging people’s equality of worth.
• It is liberating, providing freedom from oppressive, debilitating conditions.
• It is life enhancing, enabling the expression of people’s full human potential.
(Stringer 1999: 9-10)
Practice is informed by knowledge,
It is an ongoing process
Cycle of reflective practice
Act to improve practice by measure
Implementing a plan of action
Evaluating the action
Planning a report
Degree of empowerment given to all voices
Unrestrained dialogue between researcher and participants
Role of reflection (reflection in action)
Funding sources-research question in advance
Truth-what does collaborative
What is it???
particular way of asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, a situation, or an organization. In so doing, it enhances a system's capacity for collaboration and change
Organizational development process or philosophy
Engages individuals within an organizational system
Utilizes a 4-stage process
The identification of organizational processes that work well.
The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future.
Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well.
DESTINY (or DELIVER):
The implementation (execution) of the proposed design.
Appreciative Inquiry 4- D Cycle measure
What gives life?
How to empower, learn, adjust, improvise?
What is the world calling for?
Affirmative Topic Choice
What should be—the ideal?
Build organizations around what works, rather than trying to fix what doesn't... It can be enjoyable and natural to many managers, who are often sociable people
The approach acknowledges the contribution of individuals, in order to increase trust and organizational alignment
Used extensively to foster change in businesses (a variety of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions.
An Approach to Community Change
Literature Review future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)Chapter II
Literature Review (secondary resources)
Data Collection: Raw data (primary resources)
It is written by an authority on the topic.
It contains accurate information.
It is relevant to your assignment.
It has a clear purpose (to persuade, inform, sell something etc).
The information it contains has been reviewed prior to publication.
While researching on the Internet:1. Always question why the information is being distributed on the Internet.2. Always notice the domain name (example: .gov or .org are generally more trustworthy than .com sites).3. Unless otherwise directed, there are better sites to use than Wikipedia.
.edu- An educational establishment runs the website. This does not mean that the information you find is academic, many schools provide students with their own web pages, which contain personal opinions and information that might not be correct.
.gov- Governmental Agencies
.net- Network provider
.com- Commercial establishments, companies such as Converse and Amazon have the .com suffix attached to their sites.
.org- Organizational web site. They are often nonprofit, i.e. .American Sociological Association or PETA. The intent is to influence public opinion about a particular cause or issue.
indispensable tools for performing research. A database is an electronic or computerized list of books, articles, and other publications.
Transcend Media future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)
Transcend Peace links
Peace media clearinghouse
Swiss Peace future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)
Conflict analysis and
Journal of Religion Conflict, and Peace future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)
United States Institute for Peace
Journal of Humanitarian Assistance future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)
Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict
Peace and Conflict Studies
Peace Conflict Development
Sort (use colors, numbers, cut/paste)
Create concept map, chart, table…
Digital Voice Recording
Use rich, accurate detail
What do I make of all of this?
How does this fit into a larger framework?
Find one critical colleague
Sit down with that person
Face that person
Listen to that person without giving any advice
Ask questions to help the researcher clarify their research questions (use research protocol)