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The Contribution of Research to Social Change. Diane Ross, Associate Professor Otterbein University Westerville, Ohio USA. Essential Questions for the week. How does your interest in peace and social justice move your areas of inquiry?

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The contribution of research to social change

The Contribution of Research to Social Change

Diane Ross, Associate Professor

Otterbein University

Westerville, Ohio USA


Essential questions for the week
Essential Questions for the week

  • How does your interest in peace and social justice move your areas of inquiry?

  • How is this question situated in the field of “Peace Research” as defined by Galtung and others?

  • How can we work in community to support each other’s areas of inquiry?

  • How does this question move your actions in creating a world that is more peaceful and just?


Assessments
Assessments

  • Before (pre-assessment)

    • Research survey and personal goals

  • During (formative assessment)

    • Development of your personal question

      • Butcher block paper- Gallery Walk

    • Action Research Plan (formative assessment)

    • Appreciative Inquiry Protocol (formative assessment)

  • Post- assessment

    • Research proposal

    • Presentation

    • Turn in a digital copy by email- before a grade is turned in

    • Will support your research for up to 30 years


How we will get there
How we will get there....

Survey Previous Research Foundation- Monday

Begin to formulate your own personal research agenda

Introduce Research Paradigms

Gallery Walk of Critical Feedback

Introduce Peace Research/ Galtung theory of Peace Research

Introduce Action Research Paradigm- Tuesday

Participate in a Action Research Activity

Introduce Appreciative Inquiry Paradigm- Wednesday

Participate in Appreciative Inquiry Activity

Introduce structure of paper and research tools (including online databases)- Thursday

Participate in Critical Colleague Activity- Friday

Share personal research protocol with the class/ Graded assignment


How do i situate myself as a peace researcher
How do I situate myself as a peace researcher?

  • Mom

  • Teacher

  • Researcher

  • Scholar

  • Peace Activist

  • Your Servant Leader this week


Area of inquiry
Area of Inquiry

  • Dissertation: How do I understand my role in preparing teachers who teach for peace and social justice

    • Research Methodology- Heuristics; an autobiographical phenomenological method, to explore this issue.

    • Conclusions: Middle childhood teacher educators must spend their own lives acquiring dispositions to practice social justice and equity if the pre-service educators they instruct are to have any possibility of acquiring these dispositions themselves.

  • Acquiring Cultural Consciousness through Field Experiences in “Developing Countries”: A Case Study in Kampala, Uganda

    • Research Methodology- Qualitative Case Study- personal journals, student journals, interviews, observations

  • Ross, D. A. (2008), "Culturally competent and socio-politically conscious teaching: A teacher educator works to model the journey to critical cultural competence". International Journal of Multicultural Education, Vol 10, No 1.

  • Ross, D. A.  & Wicks, M.  (2007 winter) "Making authentic service learning alive in middle level classrooms".  Ohio Middle School Association.

  • Ross, D.A. (2005, spring). "Project SAIL (Summer academy for integrated learning): A college/school partnership for middle school reform".  Ohio Middle School Journal: Columbus, Ohio.

  • Ross, D. A., & Lehr, L. (2000, May). "Educators and the paradigmatic struggle in teaching and learning in a digital technology reality: An interpretive study"  Research Center for Educational Technology (RCET).  Kent, Ohio 





  • What is research1
    What is research

    • Inquiry

    • collaborative

    • Activity

    • Stating a hypothesis

    • Testing hypothesis

    • Looking for patterns

    • Developing relationships that illustrate behaviors

    • Getting in contact with subject

    • Lab

    • Extension of your original thoughts

    • Disprove the null


    Research is an organized studywith methodical investigation into a subject in order to discover facts, to establish or revise a theory, or to develop a plan of action basedon the facts discovered



    Research is a frame of mind….a perspective that people take toward objects and activities

    (Bogdan and Biklen 1992: 223)


    Have you felt good about your experiences
    Have you felt good about your experiences? take toward objects and activities


    Forming personal research questions
    Forming personal research questions… take toward objects and activities



    What are the most pressing questions that you have around the issues of peace and social justice
    What are the most pressing questions that you articulate the questions…have around the issues of peace and Social justice?


    Because all change processes begin with framing an issue and collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.


    What are your three top questions of inquiry

    1 2 3 collecting data, we become aware that in the very act of doing these preliminary activities, we are socially constructing our future through choices we make and dialogue we use.

    What are your three top questions of inquiry?


    It is through language that we create the world, because it is nothing until we describe it. And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions. To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe….

    Joseph Jaworski, Synchronicity


    What is your biggest question of inquiry currently
    what is your biggest question of inquiry currently? is nothing until we describe it. And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions. To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe….


    Inquiry and change are not separate, but are simultaneous. Inquiry is intervention. The seeds of change – the things people think and talk about, discover and learn, and that inform dialogue and inspire images of the future- are implicit in the very first questions that we ask.


    Why are you interested in this question
    Why are you interested in this question Inquiry is intervention. The seeds of change – the things people think and talk about, discover and learn, and that inform dialogue and inspire images of the future- are implicit in the very first questions that we ask.


    We come to know ourselves by bringing to consciousness the process by which our view points are formed…


    What do you already know about this question
    What do you already know about this question process by which our view points are formed…


    You will learn what you already know. You need to learn how to generalize significantly what you know.


    Write one question of inquiry that you currently have on butcher block paper and hang this on the wall


    We can undress our souls with the pen

    We can undress our souls with the pen….. butcher block paper and hang this on the wall


    Critical colleagues
    Critical Colleagues butcher block paper and hang this on the wall

    • Pose one question under each research question


    Research paradigms

    Research Paradigms butcher block paper and hang this on the wall


    Social research disciplines
    Social Research disciplines butcher block paper and hang this on the wall….

    anthropology

    archaeology

    comparative musicology

    communication studies

    cultural studies

    Demography

    Economics

    History

    human geography

    international development

    international relations

    linguistics, media studies, philology

    political science

    psychology (at least in part)

    social work

    social policy

    sociology


    Epistemologies and butcher block paper and hang this on the wallOntologies

    How we see the world and how we come to know….

    Positivism

    Quantitative

    Post-Positivism

    Constructive

    Qualitative

    Perspective

    The knower and the known cannot be separated

    Interpretation

    Gap between rich and poor

    No single reality

    Knowledge is conjectural

    Rationalism

    Science

    Stable

    Consistent

    Coherent

    Rising Nuclear Age

    Global threat to the environment

    Participant Observer

    Outsider/ Observer

    Ex. Adapting visual methods: Action Research with Kampala Street Children

    Ex, Quantitative Research Provides Compelling Evidence for Success of Participatory Development Programme in Uganda


    Research Processes butcher block paper and hang this on the wall

    Social Research

    Positivist and/or Post-positivist

    “Soft Sciences”

    Scientific Research

    Positivist

    “Hard Sciences”

    Anthropology

    Chemistry

    Biology

    Mathematics

    Psychology

    Cultural Studies

    Ex: Psychosocial Vulnerability and Resilience Measures

    For National-Level Monitoring of Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children

    Ex: Alcohol Consumption in Uganda


    Research butcher block paper and hang this on the wall Process:

    Systematic Interaction Between Theories and Data

    Quantitative Methods

    What/ Where/ When

    Qualitative Methods

    Why/ How

    PersonalExperiences

    Smaller number of attributes across many cases

    Concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena

    Larger number of attributes across relatively few cases

    Attempts to quantify social phenomena

    Collects and analyzes numerical data

    Interpretation over quantification

    Journals

    Diaries

    Structured

    Interview

    Content

    Analysis

    Survey

    Focus Groups

    Participant

    observation

    Questionnaire

    StructuredObservation

    Secondary

    Analysis

    Semi/Un structured

    Interviews

    Text -Based Data


    Research butcher block paper and hang this on the wall

    Post-Positivist

    Positivist

    Social Sciences

    Qualitative

    Phenomenology

    Ethnography

    Value orientation

    Feminist

    Critical

    Constructivist

    Action Research

    Appreciative Inquiry

    Constructivist with a Value Orientation for Peace

    Peace Research



    Gallery walk

    What questions can you ask to help move this person forward and to help clarify their question….?

    Gallery Walk….


    Peace research

    Peace Research and to help clarify their question….?


    Peace research how would you define it
    Peace research how would you define it and to help clarify their question….?

    • Networking using technology

    • Spreading data information in order to inform and empower

    • Finding a balance between theory and reality

    • Applying different methods in research

    • Doing, interdisciplinary, inter ideological, international thinking, civilization, dialogic

    • Dynamic and active

    • Insighting change

    • contextual

    • Questions assumptions

    • Dangerous to repeat prior views

    • Promoting universal access to information

    • Understanding the world to facilitate change

    • Analyzing the topic and the self

    • Having an end goal which is an avoidance of violence

    • Build upon the old to build the new


    Social justice and research basic premise for the class
    Social Justice and Research…. and to help clarify their question….?Basic premise for the class…

    Social justice is not static or timeless. The theory of justice is understood as an attempt to understand what a society’s actions, practices, and norms mean and to elucidate what a community’s shared understandings are so that they are agreed upon principles of social justice.


    Elements of peace research
    Elements of Peace Research and to help clarify their question….?

    Dialogic

    Explicit value

    Inter-disciplinary…..Intra….Trans-disciplinary

    Inter-national….Intra…..Trans-national….

    Holistic

    Global


    Peace studies are johan galtung 2005 peace a ten point primer
    Peace studies are…….. and to help clarify their question….?Johan Galtung (2005, Peace: A Ten Point Primer)

    Empirical

    Critical

    Constructive

    (I would say… focused on change…)

    Paradigm of Praxis

    Transformative

    Emancipatory


    Empirical
    Empirical and to help clarify their question….?

    dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.

    scientific statements are subject to and derived from our experiences or observations

    Construct hypotheses

    Compare data and hypotheses


    Critical
    Critical and to help clarify their question….?

    Ethical

    Politically empowering

    Compare data with values related to peace

    Data must be explicit

    Comparison carried out with rigor

    Human behavior critics


    Constructive studies
    Constructive studies and to help clarify their question….?

    • Do not shy away from making recommendations

      • Adequate reasoning

      • Value premises

      • Adequate data

      • Explicit values

      • Well tested theories


    and to help clarify their question….?rejects the notion of researcher neutrality, understanding that the most active researcher is often one who has most at stake in resolving a problematic situation.


    Response to class dross@otterbein edu
    Response to class….. and to help clarify their [email protected]

    What caused you to “show up” today?

    What new learnings did you acquire today?

    What questions do you have after today?

    What hopes do you have for this class time together?

    This time together will be successful if…


    Readings tonight

    Action Research definition and examples: and to help clarify their question….?

    Readings Tonight


    New game activity
    New Game Activity and to help clarify their question….?


    Gallery walk1
    Gallery Walk and to help clarify their question….?


    Good research questions
    Good Research Questions and to help clarify their question….?

    • Is my research question compelling?

      • Is it important to you?

      • Is it important to a larger community?

      • Is it authentically engaged?

    • Is my research broad enough to support multiple perspectives?

      • Does my research avoid dichotomies?

    • Is my research question researchable?

      • Are primary and secondary resources are available

    • Is my research manageable in the allotted time?

    • Who are the people involved in my research?

    • Where is the place I will focus for my research?

    • What is the point in time I am researching?

    • What is the point of view behind this issue?


    Important questions to consider
    Important Questions to consider and to help clarify their question….?

    • What are the important research questions in my field

    • What areas need further exploration?

    • Could my study fill a gap?

    • Has a great deal of study already been conducted on this topic?

    • Has this study been done before? If so, is there area for improvement?

    • Is the timing right for this topic to be explored?

    • Is this a hot topic?, or is it becoming obsolete?

    • Would funding sources be available?

    • Is the target community interested?

    • Will my study have a significant impact on the field?


    Critical colleague
    Critical Colleague and to help clarify their question….?


    Questions from yesterday
    Questions from yesterday and to help clarify their question….?

    • How will we be graded?

      • Maria Lucia

    • Why is it important to understand research methodology?

    • What is happening the rest of the week

      • Wed.

        • Appreciative Inquiry

      • Thurs.

        • Research tools

        • Literature Review

        • Critical Colleague Review

      • Friday

        • Small group presentations

        • Party....

          • You and your group decide what you want to make and I will buy the food

          • I shared with you...now you share with me....


    Qualitative research methods

    Qualitative and to help clarify their question….?Research Methods


    Credibility reliability validity ethics
    Credibility, Reliability, Validity, Ethics and to help clarify their question….?

    • Reliability- consistent over time and accurate

      • Qualitative

        • generating understanding

        • Internal audit

        • Dependability

        • trustworthiness



    Tools
    Tools measure

    • Well established research methods

    • Embedding yourself in the culture of the population

    • Triangulation

    • Rich description

    • Random sampling

    • Ensuring honesty in “participants”- right to refusal

    • Iterative questioning

    • Negative case analysis

    • Frequent debriefing

    • Peer review/ critical colleague

    • Reflective commentary from researcher

    • Member checks

    • Catalytic

    • Educative


    Ethnographical research
    Ethnographical Research measure

    Immersing an individual researcher or research team in the everyday activities of an organization or society, usually for a prolonged period of time, very naturalistic, impossible to gather from laboratory or "clean room" observational studies.  

    An ethnographic study of rural community literacy practices in Bweyale and their implications for adult literacy education in Uganda


    Phenomenological research
    Phenomenological research measure

    Observation of an experience

    From it the essential features of experiences and the essence of what we experience.

    Hannah Arendt: Eichmann in Jerusalem(1963), "the banality of evil“


    Feminist research
    Feminist research measure

    • all research is essentially value-driven

    • always results in some kind of new action or practice

    • is `driven' by the interests of the women / the oppressed

    • collaborative design and conduct of the research;

    • questions, and otherwise disrupts the reproduction and perpetuation of power relationships that subordinate “women” `subjects' as objects

    • respects and values women's experiences and their accounts of them

      • Troubling the Angels, Patti Lather..


    Critical theory
    Critical theory measure

    Research is an ethical and political act

    Paulo Friere


    Auto ethnography
    Auto-ethnography measure

    • Writing about the Self Analytically

      • Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez: An Autobiography. By Richard Rodriguez. Boston, MA: D.R. Godine, 1982.

      • Social blindness: An autoethnographic study of the interplay of language, cognition, and genetics in a family with an autistic child.


    Heuristics
    Heuristics measure

    Internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for further investigation and analysis.

    Knowledge derived is attained through tacit, intuitive or observed phenomena, is deepened through indwelling, focusing, self-searching or dialogue with others, and always needs a medium or base - its frame of reference

    Loneliness, Moustakas, Clark


    Action research

    Action Research measure

    What is it?

    Brainstorm with your Critical Colleague


    Action research1
    Action research measure

    The roots of action research can be found in anthropology, social-psychology, and education. Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice (Dewey, 1916, Goodenough, 1963, Lewin, 1946).


    Kurt lewin
    Kurt Lewin measure

    then a professor at MIT, first coined the term “action research” in about 1944,

    research leading to social action” that uses “a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact-finding about the result of the action


    Stringer
    Stringer measure

    • It is democratic, enabling the participation of all people.

    • It is equitable, acknowledging people’s equality of worth.

    • It is liberating, providing freedom from oppressive, debilitating conditions.

    • It is life enhancing, enabling the expression of people’s full human potential.

    (Stringer 1999: 9-10)


    Knowledge is derived from practice measure

    Practice is informed by knowledge,

    It is an ongoing process


    Action research is
    Action Research is…. measure

    Cycle of reflective practice

    Collaborative

    Made Public


    Action research cycle of reflective practice
    Action Research measureCycle of Reflective Practice

    Act

    Observe

    Reflect


    Act to improve practice by measure

    Implementing a plan of action

    Evaluating the action

    Planning a report


    Action research cycle of reflective practice1
    Action Research measureCycle of Reflective Practice…

    • Observe the consequences of one’s action

      • Collecting data

      • Describing what is there


    Action research cycle of reflective practice2
    Action Research measureCycle of Reflective Practice

    • Reflect on the situation, one’s self, and the research process exploring:

      • Exploring: What is happening here

      • Interpreting and explaining: How/why are things as they are

      • Reconsidering: In what ways can I make the research process better


    Key elements
    Key Elements measure

    Degree of empowerment given to all voices

    Unrestrained dialogue between researcher and participants

    Role of reflection (reflection in action)


    Action research in peace studies
    Action Research in Peace Studies measure

    • STAYING TRUE IN NEPAL: Understanding Community Mediation through Action Research

    • Silence(ing), voice(s) and gross violations of human rights: constituting and performing subjectivities through PhotoPAR.

    • Everyday understandings of peace and non-peace: peacekeeping and peacebuilding at a US Midwestern high school.


    Examples analysis of the method
    Examples: Analysis of the method measure

    • What is the research question

      • How did the researcher enter the field?

      • Is the researcher an “insider” or an “outsider”

    • Description of the problem

      • Who defined the problem?

        • Was it collaborative?

        • Was it democratic?

    • Action

      • What actions were taken?

    • How was the effect of the action recorded?

      • Data collection tools?

    • What were the findings?

    • What tools were used to ensure reliability and validity?


    Action research2
    Action Research measure

    Pros

    Cons

    Funding sources-research question in advance

    Kickstart

    Vested interest

    Truth-what does collaborative

    • Multiple voices

    • Collaborative

    • Flexible

    • Adaptable

    • Vested interest

    • inclusive


    Appreciative inquiry

    Appreciative Inquiry measure

    What is it???


    What is it
    What is it??? measure

    • Appreciate…verb…1. valuing; the act of recognizing the best in people or the world around us; affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; to perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, excellence) to living systems. 2. to increase in value

    • Synonyms – VALUING, PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and HONORING


    • Inquire- measureverb 1. the act of exploration and discovery. 2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities.

    • Synonyms: DISCOVERY, SEARCH, SYSTEMATIC EXPLORATION, and STUDY


    Appreciative inquiry is
    Appreciative Inquiry is…. measure

    particular way of asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, a situation, or an organization. In so doing, it enhances a system's capacity for collaboration and change


    Appreciative inquiry1
    Appreciative Inquiry measure

    Organizational development process or philosophy

    Engages individuals within an organizational system

    Utilizes a 4-stage process


    Stages of appreciative inquiry
    Stages of Appreciative Inquiry measure

    DISCOVER:

    The identification of organizational processes that work well.

    DREAM:

    The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future.

    DESIGN:

    Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well.

    DESTINY (or DELIVER):

    The implementation (execution) of the proposed design.


    Appreciative Inquiry 4- D Cycle measure

    DISCOVERY

    What gives life?

    Appreciating

    DESTINY

    How to empower, learn, adjust, improvise?

    Sustaining

    DREAM

    What is the world calling for?

    Envisioning Results

    Affirmative Topic Choice

    DESIGN

    What should be—the ideal?

    Co- constructing


    • Generative process measure

    • Organic process (all parts are defined by the whole….cannot take an organization apart to study pieces

    • What do we do well?


    Build organizations around what works, rather than trying to fix what doesn't... It can be enjoyable and natural to many managers, who are often sociable people


    The approach acknowledges the contribution of individuals, in order to increase trust and organizational alignment




    Used extensively to foster change in businesses (a variety of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions.


    What is the role of assumptions in change

    What is the role of assumptions in change? of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions.


    Assumptions
    Assumptions of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions.

    • Statements and rules that explain what a group generally believes

    • Explain the context of the group’s choices and behaviors

    • Are usually not visible to or verbalized by the participants/members; rather than develop and exist

    • Must be made visible and discussed before anyone can be sure of the group beliefs


    Assumptions of appreciative inquiry
    Assumptions of Appreciative Inquiry of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions.

    • In every society, organization, or group, something works

    • What we focus on becomes our reality

    • Reality is created in the moment, and there are multiple realities

    • The act of asking questions of an organization or a group influences the group in some way


    • People have more confidence and comfort to journey to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • If we carry parts of the past forward, they should be what is best about the past

    • It is important to value difference

    • The language we use creates our reality.


    Appreciative inquiry protocol
    APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PROTOCOL future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Appreciative inquiry and peace
    Appreciative Inquiry and Peace future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • Appreciative Inquiry and Public Dialogue:

      An Approach to Community Change

    • Appreciative Inquiry for Peace Building: A Case Study of Constitution Making Process in Nepal

    • Transforming Educational Practice for Peace in Northern Ireland: The Power of Narrative Dialogue.


    Examples analysis of the method1
    Examples: Analysis of the method future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • What is the research question

      • How did the researcher enter the field?

      • Is the researcher an “insider” or an “outsider”

    • Description of the problem

      • Who defined the problem?

        • Was it collaborative?

        • Was it democratic?

    • Action

      • What actions were taken?

    • How was the effect of the action recorded?

      • Data collection tools?

    • What were the findings?

    • What tools were used to ensure reliability and validity?


    Chapter ii

    Literature Review future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    Chapter II


    Tools for research
    Tools for research future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    Literature Review (secondary resources)

    Data Collection: Raw data (primary resources)

    Data analysis


    Good literature review
    Good literature review… future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    It is written by an authority on the topic.

    It contains accurate information.

    It is relevant to your assignment.

    It has a clear purpose (to persuade, inform, sell something etc).

    The information it contains has been reviewed prior to publication.


    Using the internet
    Using the Internet future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    While researching on the Internet:1. Always question why the information is being distributed on the Internet.2. Always notice the domain name (example: .gov or .org are generally more trustworthy than .com sites).3. Unless otherwise directed, there are better sites to use than Wikipedia.


    Internet sites according to suffix
    Internet sites according to suffix future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    .edu- An educational establishment runs the website. This does not mean that the information you find is academic, many schools provide students with their own web pages, which contain personal opinions and information that might not be correct.

    .gov- Governmental Agencies

    .net- Network provider

    .com- Commercial establishments, companies such as Converse and Amazon have the .com suffix attached to their sites.

    .org- Organizational web site. They are often nonprofit, i.e. .American Sociological Association or PETA. The intent is to influence public opinion about a particular cause or issue.


    Electronic sources and the internet

    Electronic Sources and the Internet future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Types of periodicals

    Types of Periodicals future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Journal bias

    Journal Bias future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Databases
    Databases future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    indispensable tools for performing research. A database is an electronic or computerized list of books, articles, and other publications.


    Database search

    Database Search future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Transcend Media future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • http://www.transcend.org/tms/index.php

      Transcend Peace links

    • http://www.transcend.org/tms/links.php

      Peace media clearinghouse

    • http://peacemedia.usip.org/teachingguides


    Swiss Peace future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • http://www.swisspeace.ch/typo3/en/publications/index.html$

      UNESCO

    • http://www.unesco.org

      Conflict analysis and

    • http://library.gmu.edu/resources/socsci/conflict.html


    Journal of Religion Conflict, and Peace future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • http://www.plowsharesproject.org/journal/s-tools

      United States Institute for Peace

    • http://www.usip.org/resources-tools

    • http://www.usip.org/resources/online-journals

      Conciliation Resources

    • http://www.c-r.org/index.php


    Journal of Humanitarian Assistance future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    • http://jha.ac/

      Journal for the Study of Peace and Conflict

    • http://jspc.library.wisc.edu/index2.html

      Peace and Conflict Studies

    • http://www.gmu.edu/programs/icar/pcs/

      Peace Conflict Development 

    • http://www.peacestudiesjournal.org.uk/


    Formatting and style guide
    Formatting and style guide future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

    http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/everyday_writer3e/docsource/2d.html

    http://www.noodletools.com/noodlebib/express.php

    http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/workscited/

    http://citationmachine.net/index.php


    Iii methodology data collection tools

    III. Methodology future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)& Data Collection Tools


    Data collection tools
    Data collection tools…. future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Data analysis

    Data analysis future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Data interpretation step 2
    Data Interpretation…Step 2 future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    Analyze

    Categorize

    Sort (use colors, numbers, cut/paste)

    Label

    Define

    Find Patterns

    Synthesize

    Create concept map, chart, table…

    NVIVO

    Socio-gram

    Digital Voice Recording

    Inspiration


    Data interpretation step 1
    Data Interpretation….Step #1 future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    Describe

    Use rich, accurate detail


    Data interpretation step 3
    Data interpretation… Step #3 future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    Interpret/ Explain

    What do I make of all of this?

    How does this fit into a larger framework?


    Critical colleagues1
    Critical Colleagues future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)

    Find one critical colleague

    Sit down with that person

    Face that person

    Listen to that person without giving any advice

    Ask questions to help the researcher clarify their research questions (use research protocol)


    Student presentations of research protocol

    Student Presentations of Research Protocol future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


    Return to group

    Return to group….. future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known)


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