Rey Felipe II, El Siglo de Oro (the 1500s The Century of Gold) and the Fall of the Spanish Armada. Politics, Art, Culture & Religion of Spain during the Habsburg Era. The Empire of Felipe II. España 3-part kingdom (Castile, Aragon, Portugal) Castile center of royal power
Politics, Art, Culture & Religion
of Spain during the Habsburg Era
A. Felipe was from the Hapsburg family of rulers and a very strong leader
B. Devoutly Catholic - drove him to war against Turks and Protestants in England
C. Built El Escorial (palace) perfect symbol of him (1562-84)
Contemporary (16th century) View of El Escorial
El Escorial as it appears today (side view, Monastery)
The façade of the Basilica de San Lorenzo, El Escorial
(El Patio de los Reyes)
Interior View of the Basilica, El Escorial
Interior View of the Palace Library, El Escorial
Felipe II’s Private Bedchamber, El Escorial
A. Spain from 1560-1648 was, literally, a culture awash in gold and silver
B. Wealth and power of Felipe’s sparked a cultural flowering
1. Drama 4. Architecture
2. Prose 5. Painting
Contemporary Catholic depiction of Lepanto, 1571
Portrait of Felipe II(Alonso Sanchez Coello.c. 1580. Museo del Prado, Madrid)
Elizabeth I, The Armada Portrait (unknown, 1588, National Portrait Gallery, London, England)
The Catholic Mary was put on trial for treason by a court of about 40 noblemen after being implicated in the Babington Plot and after having allegedly ordered the attempted assassination of Elizabeth.
Mary denied the accusation and was spirited in her defense.
Although Mary had been found guilty and sentenced to death, Elizabeth hesitated to actually order her execution.
She was fearful of the consequences, especially if, in revenge, Mary's son James of Scotland formed an alliance with the Catholic powers, France and Spain, and invade England
she was also concerned about how this would affect the Divine Right of Kings.
Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, on 8th February 1587Mary’s Execution: the beheading of a Catholic Queen
La Armada Grande a colossal failure (1588)
Favorable weather for the English-major storm struck in the middle of the naval battle near the Isle of Wight
At midnight during the storm on July 28 1588 the English set on fire 8 ships, sacrificing regular warships by filling them with pitch, brimstone, some gunpowder, and tar, and cast them downwind among the closely-anchored vessels of the Armada.
The large fireships ("hellburners“) filled with large gunpowder barrels, were rammed into the Spanish ships-sinking or damaging many of them.
the English had been warned by their spies in the Netherlands and were ready for the attack resulted in defeat for the Armada.
Called the Battle of Gravelines- off the coast in the English Channel near Gravelines, FranceLa Armada Grande (1588)-why Spain lost
In England, the boost to national pride lasted for years, and Elizabeth's legend lasted long after her death.
The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave heart to the Protestant cause across Europe
the belief that God was behind the Protestant cause was shown by the striking of commemorative medals that bore the inscription, He blew with His winds, and they were scattered.
]Consequences of Felipe’s Failure