Rey felipe ii el siglo de oro the 1500s the century of gold and the fall of the spanish armada
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Rey Felipe II, El Siglo de Oro (the 1500s The Century of Gold) and the Fall of the Spanish Armada. Politics, Art, Culture & Religion of Spain during the Habsburg Era. The Empire of Felipe II. España 3-part kingdom (Castile, Aragon, Portugal) Castile center of royal power

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Politics, Art, Culture & Religion of Spain during the Habsburg Era

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Rey Felipe II, El Siglo de Oro (the 1500sThe Century of Gold) and the Fall of the Spanish Armada

Politics, Art, Culture & Religion

of Spain during the Habsburg Era

The Empire of Felipe II

  • España

    • 3-part kingdom (Castile, Aragon, Portugal)

    • Castile center of royal power

  • Italy (Naples, Milan, Sicily)

    • Declining as trade shifted to Atlantic

    • Falling apart

  • America

    • Dominated by search for gold & silver

    • Closed to other Europeans until after 1600

  • Spanish economy damaged by

    • overlarge wool production

    • flood of American gold bullion

    • untaxed nobles & overtaxed poor

Lands controlled by the kings of España

Lands in the New World controlled by España

Rey Felipe II the Man

A. Felipe was from the Hapsburg family of rulers and a very strong leader

B. Devoutly Catholic - drove him to war against Turks and Protestants in England

C. Built El Escorial (palace) perfect symbol of him (1562-84)

Contemporary (16th century) View of El Escorial

El Escorial as it appears today (side view, Monastery)

The façade of the Basilica de San Lorenzo, El Escorial

(El Patio de los Reyes)

Interior View of the Basilica, El Escorial

Interior View of the Palace Library, El Escorial

Felipe II’s Private Bedchamber, El Escorial

Art and Culture of El Siglo de Oro

A. Spain from 1560-1648 was, literally, a culture awash in gold and silver

B. Wealth and power of Felipe’s sparked a cultural flowering

1. Drama 4. Architecture

2. Prose 5. Painting

3. Poetry

El Greco, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, oil on canvas, 1586-88; Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spaincommissioned by Felipe

Felipe’s 2 daughters Isabella II and Catalina

The Religious Wars of Felipe II

  • Felipe’s Crusade, 1560 - 1598

    • 1571: halted Muslim Turks at Lepanto

      • Spain master of the Mediterranean

    • 1580: annexation of Portugal

      • Now held all of the Iberian Peninsula & empire in America & Asia

Contemporary Catholic depiction of Lepanto, 1571

Felipe’s Other Religious Goals

  • End French wars of Religion: Assure Catholic triumph over Protestant Huguenots & spread Spanish influence in France

  • Defeat Dutch Protestants

  • Reconquer England for Catholicism

Portrait of Felipe II(Alonso Sanchez Coello.c. 1580. Museo del Prado, Madrid)

Felipe II and Elizabeth I

  • Enter England

    • Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) chief supporter of Dutch protestants & an enemy of Felipe II

    • Intense anti-Catholic feelings in England feed Protestant English nationalism

Elizabeth I, The Armada Portrait (unknown, 1588, National Portrait Gallery, London, England)

Felipe’s Goals for England

  • Felipe had been king consort of England until the death, in 1558, of his wife, Queen Mary I of England

  • he was upset over the policies pursued by the new queen, his sister-in-law Elizabeth I

  • After Mary's death, Philip became a suitor as Elizabeth's husband, but she refused him.

Felipe’s Revenge on England

  • After Elizabeth turned Felipe down for marriage, he decided to invade and reconquer England for the Catholics using his Spanish naval fleet: the Armada

  • In 1586, Queen Elizabeth I of England, sent support to the Protestant causes in the Netherlands and France, and English pirate Sir Francis Drake launched attacks against Spanish merchants in the Caribbean and the Pacific, along with a particularly aggressive attack on the port of Cadiz.

  • In 1587, Elizabeth I reluctantly signed orders for the beheading of her Catholic cousin Mary Queen of Scots, who was blamed 3 times for trying to assassinate Elizabeth

The Catholic Mary was put on trial for treason by a court of about 40 noblemen after being implicated in the Babington Plot and after having allegedly ordered the attempted assassination of Elizabeth.

Mary denied the accusation and was spirited in her defense.

Although Mary had been found guilty and sentenced to death, Elizabeth hesitated to actually order her execution.

She was fearful of the consequences, especially if, in revenge, Mary's son James of Scotland formed an alliance with the Catholic powers, France and Spain, and invade England

she was also concerned about how this would affect the Divine Right of Kings.

Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, on 8th February 1587

Mary’s Execution: the beheading of a Catholic Queen

Felipe’s Magnificent Failure

La Armada Grande a colossal failure (1588)

Felipe’s Magnificent Failure

  • After the Catholic Mary’s execution, Felipe had had enough of Elizabeth

  • In 1588, hoping to put a stop to Elizabeth’s rule, Philip sent the Spanish Armada to attack England.

  • He was supported by Pope Sixtus V, who treated the invasion as a crusade-wanted to see England return to Catholicism

La Armada Grande (1588)

  • Prior to the undertaking, Pope SixtusV allowed Philip II of Spain to collect crusade taxes and granted his men indulgences.

  • On 28 May 1588 the Armada set sail from Lisbon, Portugal headed for the English Channel.

  • The fleet was composed of around 130 ships, 8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers, and bore 1,500 brass guns and 1,000 iron guns.

  • It contained 28 purpose-built warships: 20 galleons, 4 galleys and 4 galleasses.

Favorable weather for the English-major storm struck in the middle of the naval battle near the Isle of Wight

At midnight during the storm on July 28 1588 the English set on fire 8 ships, sacrificing regular warships by filling them with pitch, brimstone, some gunpowder, and tar, and cast them downwind among the closely-anchored vessels of the Armada.

The large fireships ("hellburners“) filled with large gunpowder barrels, were rammed into the Spanish ships-sinking or damaging many of them.

the English had been warned by their spies in the Netherlands and were ready for the attack resulted in defeat for the Armada.

Called the Battle of Gravelines- off the coast in the English Channel near Gravelines, France

La Armada Grande (1588)-why Spain lost

The Battle of the Gravelines

In England, the boost to national pride lasted for years, and Elizabeth's legend lasted long after her death.

The defeat of the Spanish Armada gave heart to the Protestant cause across Europe

the belief that God was behind the Protestant cause was shown by the striking of commemorative medals that bore the inscription, He blew with His winds, and they were scattered.


Consequences of Felipe’s Failure

Consequences of Felipe’s Failure

  • 1588: Armada Catolico a grand failure

    • Kept England protestant

  • England now a major sea power and took over North America

  • Dutch now a sea & financial power

  • Beginnings of Spanish national decay & the end of El Siglo de Oro

    • Lost wealth b/c they had too much gold which brought the price down-not as valuable

    • Colonies eventually became independent

    • falling population in Spain

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