English 1C. Wednesday, August 15, 2012 Melissa Gunby. Chapter 2. Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos. What is being parodied in this ad? What is the emotional appeal that is being used? Who is the target of this “ad?”. Emotional Appeals.
Wednesday, August 15, 2012
Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos
What does the word “fag” or “nigger” arouse?
What does the image of an American flag arouse?
How about the sound of a
Sometimes speakers have to reach a larger audience made up of more than one particular group. For example, a stump speech given today in Reno to members of the Republican party is different than Obama’s State of the Union Address in who the audience is.
This speech, given by Prime Minister Winston Churchill during WWII, had to address the entire nation of Britain.
What in this speech would appeal emotionally to an audience of a war-torn country?
Think, for example, about the Sarah McLaughlin pet adoption commercials we spoke about last week. What is the purpose of those commercials? Why is the emotional appeal more effective than a talking head asking you to contribute?
Sometimes authors want to use emotions to connect with the audience to assure them that he understands their experiences, especially when the topic is sensitive.
Can someone read the excerpt from Steve Jobs’ speech on page 44?
How does Jobs build bridges with what he says?
Emotional appeals can also be used to sustain an argument, and to make logical claims stronger.
Arguments based on character: ethos
“The character of the speaker is a cause of persuasion when the speech is so uttered as to make him worthy of belief; for as a rule we trust men of probity more, and more quickly, about things in general, while on points outside the realm of exact knowledge, where opinion is divided, we trust them absolutely. This trust, however, should be created by the speech itself, and not left to depend upon an antecedent impression that the speaker is this or that kind of man. It is not true , as some writers on the art maintain, that the probity of the speaker contributes nothing to his persuasiveness; on the contrary, we might almost affirm that his character is the most potent of all the means to persuasion.”
Would be the most credible?
Sarah McLaughlin selling Pepsi?
Bill Clinton selling McDonald’s
Dr. Phil giving a seminar on how to live a frugal life?
Brittany Spears lecturing on having a successful marriage?
What makes these speakers credible or not in these given situations?
Through the reputation of the speaker or product
Through the langage, evidence and images used by the speaker or in the text
Before we can accept the authority of a speaker, we have to first respect their authority (understand that they are a “master” of what they’re speaking about), respect their integrity and motives (if it’s someone making a sales pitch, we should know that in advance), or at least acknowledge what they stand for (though I don’t love the recent politics of Komen, INC, I do still support the organization for their cause in trying to get access for all women to screening for breast cancer).
However, character alone can’t carry an argument. It can’t speak to everyone, therefore, ethos must be used along with pathos or logos to create a complete argument.
We look for shortcuts to help us make decisions over time.
What kind of jeans should I buy? Who should I vote for? What movie should I see?
We usually turn to experts for these answers. Fashionistas, political pundits, movie reviews in magazines and websites. But how can we trust these people?
All authors must expect to face the question “What does he know about the subject? What experiences does she have that make her an expert?”
Bold and Personal claim to authority: “I belong to the Clan of One-Breasted Women.”
False Modesty: “having spent five years at Harvard striving for a Ph.D….and…living either as a student…or a journalst…in China and southeast Asia.”
Self-assured Prose: interweaving phrases that assure your audience of your credibility: see the example from Mike Rose’s blog on page 59.
Crediblity speaks to a writer’s honest, respect for the audience and its values, and likeability.
Make reasonable claims and back them up with evidence
Connecting beliefs to core principles
Left side of the room, tackle Andrew Sullivan’s excerpt on page 61-62
Right side, look at Oprah’s on page 63-64
Be prepared to discuss these with the class.
How do these two authors establish their authority and credibility in the small samples we have?
Do you believe them?
Please look at the grey/green box on page 64
It’s important to question the motivation of an author.
Can someone read the excerpt from Swift’s A Modest Proposal on page 65?
How does this present Swift’s reasons and motivations for writing?
Use only credible, reliable sources to build your argument and cite those sources properly.
Respect the reader by stating the opposing position accurately.
Establish common ground with your audience. Most of the time, this can be done by acknowledging values and beliefs shared by those on both sides of the argument.
If appropriate for the assignment, disclose why you are interested in this topic or what personal experiences you have had with the topic.
Organize your argument in a logical, easy to follow manner. You can use the Toulmin method of logic or a simple pattern such as chronological order, most general to most detailed example, earliest to most recent example, etc.
Proofread the argument. Too many careless grammar mistakes cast doubt on your character as a writer.
Please look at the “Not Just Words” activity on pages 54-55. Complete each of the three bullet points, and turn in 1 per group (make sure everyone’s name is on it).
What is ethos?
What is pathos?
What examples of ethos and pathos can you identify in the ad shown here?
Arguments Based on Facts and Reason: Logos
McCoy: You admit that?
Spock: To deny the facts would be illogical, Doctor.
-from Star Trek “A Piece of the Action”
In 1962, the US ambassador to the UN confronted his Soviet counterpart to deny the existence of missiles placed in Cuba; he had hard evidence of spy photos to support his claim.
In February of 2003, US Secretary of State argued to the UN Security Council that Iraq harboured weapons of mass destruction without having hard proof. He had only “an accumulation of facts and disturbing patterns of behavior” from which to build his case.
Who had the stronger case and why?
With the people at your table, discuss whether this poster appeals to logic and reason, and why or why not.Not Just Words
People mostly want arguments based on facts and testimony to those grounded only in reasoning (see previous example we discussed).
In shows like CSI, they’re always looking for the “smoking gun,” or DNA evidence which is hard to discredit/disprove.
This is backed up by our discussion of the Casey Anthony case from last week, where we talked about how the prosecution failed to gather the right evidence and put together the right argument for the jury to convict her of murdering her daughter.
Statement + Proof or Claim + Supporting Evidence
Look at the example on page 75
What we have to consider here is bias.
Look at the sample on page 78-79. Pay particular attention to the italicized words. What does this tell us about the use of statistics?Statistics
Facts and figures can be manipulated just as much as other information to provide the desired result.
“The crime rate in this city has been cut in half during our time in office.” – A mayor and police chief running for re-election.
“One in twenty citizens are going to be the victim of a crime this year” – the opponent.
The same statistic can be cited for cause of celebration or alarm.
Right now, we’re hearing a lot of poll data on the news because of the Republican Nominee election.
How much faith do you put in the following two polls?
Like other sources of statistics and facts, remember to consider the credibility of the source.
Remember to look at the date of a poll, since there are factors that can influence those taking the poll or survey.
Anyone who has ever watched a crime drama knows how unreliable witness testimony can be.
However, these are still important sources to be considered.
Look at the two examples on pages 83-84. With those on your side of the room, discuss which, if either, of these two examples are good uses of testimony and narratives for a logical or factual appeal. Why or why not?
In a valid syllogism, the conclusion follows logically (unlike the cartoon example with the penguin).
Endoxa is Aristotle’s term
Please look at the example on page 87.
In general terms, academic discourse or academic argument is addressed to an audience that is well informed about the topic, that attempts to convey a clear and compelling point in a somewhat formal style, and follows agreed-upon conventions of usage, punctuation, formats, etc.
Browse through the examples in the book (134-137) on migraines. Which of these seems to be the most academic of the arguments provided. Why or why not?