Directed reading thinking activity drta
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Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA). Presented By Bradley Schmitt. Description of DRTA. Developed by Russell Stauffer in 1969.

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Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)

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Directed reading thinking activity drta

Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA)



Bradley Schmitt

Description of drta

Description of DRTA

  • Developed by Russell Stauffer in 1969.

  • “DRTA encourages students to make predictions while they are reading. After reading segments of a text, students stop, confirm or revise previous predictions, and make new predictions about what they will read next.”

    (Conner, 2006)

Description of drta cont

Description of DRTA (cont.)

  • Used to make predictions, judgments, and for evidence verification.

  • Allows the students to read with a purpose.

    • Students read to confirm and revise predicts they made or are making.

  • Students can use their own experiences to help comprehend the text or the message of the author.

Purpose of drta

Purpose of DRTA

  • Teacher can obtain the students prior knowledge of the topic or the text.

  • Encourages students to monitor their comprehension while they are reading.

  • Allows the students to set a purpose for reading. (Students read to confirm and revise predictions they are making.)

    (Conner, 2006)

Steps in drta

Steps in DRTA

1.) Choose a text (can be fiction or expository.)

2.) Activate the students prior knowledge.

- brainstorm and write down a list of ideas about the topic.

3.) Have students make predictions about what might happen in the text.

- Use all available clues within the text and have the students explain how they came up with their predictions. (Do not accept “I don’t know” answers.)

Steps in drta cont

Steps in DRTA (cont.)

4.) Students will read a section of the text.

5.) Students should then confirm or revise their old predictions and make new predictions before reading more.

6.) Continue steps 4 and 5 until the students are done reading.

Model step 1 choose a text

Model step 1: Choose a text

  • Select a text that is appropriate for the grade level.

  • 5-6th grade-------(Holes by Louis Sachar)

  • 9-12 grade CA book----(expository text)

    • Can be either narrative or expository.

    • Do not have them read at this time.

Model step 2 brainstorm

Model step 2: Brainstorm

  • Students read the title of the text

    • Develop a list of concepts or ideas that come to your mind about the title.

    • Come up with a list about the theme of the story, the setting, or the author of the story.

    • Teacher writes the list on the board.

Model step 3 make predictions

Model step 3: Make Predictions

  • What will be covered in the text.

  • Make predictions on what the text will be about.

  • Scan all visible clues: pictures, charts, tables, index, and table of contents.

  • Remember to write your first predictions down before you start to read.

Model step 4 read narrative text

Model step 4: ReadNarrative text

  • Students can take turns reading the text aloud.

  • Students can also read the text independently

    • - reader

  • We will read the title and a except from the book.

Model step 5 confirm revise and make new predictions

Model step 5: Confirm, Revise and make new predictions

  • “Students should be encouraged to explain what in the text is causing them to confirm and/or revise prior predictions, and what is causing them to make the new predictions they are making.” (Conner, 2006)

  • Teacher leads a discussion about the students predictions, asking reflective type questions about the students predictions.

Model step 6 continue steps 4 and 5

Model step 6: Continue steps 4 and 5

  • Continue steps 4 and 5 until all of the text has been read.

    • Students should confirm, revise all of there new predictions

  • The students can be making a graphic organizer to organize thoughts.

Elementary and secondary examples

Elementary and Secondary Examples

1.) A elementary example of a DRTA graphic organizer on animals in the ocean:

2.) Secondary examples of a DRTA graphic organizer on climate and vegetation:

Expert suggestions

Expert Suggestions

  • DR-TA, especially making predictions, helps students focus their attention on the text and encourages active reading (Almasi, 2003).

  • If the practice of DR-TA is correctly implemented school-wide, it will help set the stage for a sturdy foundation in “study-reading.” This will become a useful skill to have as students’ progress through grades and text becomes more demanding (Richardson & Morgan, 1997).

Expert suggestions cont

Expert Suggestions (cont.)

  • Making predictions about the text can help clear up any misconceptions about the topic (Billmeyer & Barton, 1998).

  • DR-TA is a useful tool for teachers to model accurate and appropriate reading skills (Richardson & Morgan, 1997).

Reference list

Reference List

  • Almasi, J. (2003). Teaching strategic processes in reading. New York: The Guilford Press.

  • Billmeyer, R., & Barton, M.L. (1998). Teaching reading in the content areas: If not me, then who? Aurora, CO: McREL.

  • Richardson, J.S., & Morgan, R.F. (1997). Reading to learn in the content areas. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Referenec list cont

Referenec List (cont.)

  • Conner, J . (2006). Instructional reading strategy: DR-TA (Directed Reading Thinking Activity). Retrieved October 14, 2006, from

  • Reading Strategy of the Month (n.d.) Vocabulary Word Box (Directed Reading Thinking Activity) Retrieved October 14, 2006, from

References list cont

References List (cont.)

  • Clark, M & Ganschow, L. (1995). Section_4 BasicSkills (Reading Strategies; Comprehension). Retrieved October 14, 2006, from

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