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Geographic Information Systems Applications in Natural Resource Management. Chapter 4 Map Design. Michael G. Wing & Pete Bettinger. Chapter 4 Objectives. The main components, or building blocks, of a map The qualities of a map that are important in communicating information to map users

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Geographic information systems applications in natural resource management l.jpg

Geographic Information SystemsApplications in Natural Resource Management

Chapter 4

Map Design

Michael G. Wing & Pete Bettinger


Chapter 4 objectives l.jpg
Chapter 4 Objectives

  • The main components, or building blocks, of a map

  • The qualities of a map that are important in communicating information to map users

  • The types of maps that can be developed to visually and quickly communicate information to an audience.


Cartographic principles l.jpg
Cartographic Principles

  • The science of making maps

  • One of the contributing disciplines to GIS

  • The ability of GIS to graphically portray geographic analysis results sets it apart

  • People relate to maps

  • Maps have the potential to relay information quickly


Map definition l.jpg
Map Definition

  • A map is a “spatial representation of the environment.” Muehrcke and Muehrcke (1998)

  • All maps are abstractions of real world phenomena

  • Maps, within natural resource applications, should:

    • Represent land area

    • Convey message or theme about land area


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Mapmakers need to understand…

  • The objective(s) of the map (the message)

  • The people who may use the map (the audience)

  • The data that will be displayed in the map (the information available)

  • The use of graphics software for displaying map information

  • The final format of the printed or digital version of the map (the product)


Map components l.jpg
Map components

  • Symbology

  • Direction

  • Scale

  • Legend

  • Locational inset

  • Neatline

  • Typography

  • Color and contrast

  • Ancillary information (caveats and disclaimers)


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Symbology

  • The art of expression

  • Using graphics and text to convey meaning

  • Most GIS packages offer a robust suite of symbology choices



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4.2. A subset of the standard National Park Service pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).


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Direction: where’s north? pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

Figure 4.3. A variety of north arrow designs.


Scale l.jpg
Scale pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

  • The representation of map figures to their on the ground equivalents

  • A key part of most maps

  • Several different approaches

    • Graphical

    • Equivalent

    • Proportional


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Graphical scales: pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

0

500 m

500 m

1000 m

0

1 mile

1 mile

2 miles

Equivalent scales:

Proportional scales:

1 inch = 1 mile

1 inch = 500 feet

1 inch = 10 chains

1 cm = 1,000 meters

1 cm = 5 kilometers

1 : 12,000

1 : 24,000

1 : 250,000

Figure 4.4. Graphical, equivalent, and proportional scales.


Legend putting meaning to symbols l.jpg
Legend: putting meaning to symbols pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

Legend

Harvest area

Streams

Log decks / Landings

Roads

Gates

Stand boundaries

Houses

Property boundary

Figure 4.5. A map legend containing symbology and definitions.


Locational inset l.jpg
Locational pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).inset

Figure 4.6. A map of the Brown Tract roads and trails containing a neatline, locational

inset, title, legend, scale, and north arrow.


Neatline l.jpg
Neatline pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

  • A border that surrounds a map figure

    • Usually a line

  • Adds a sense of closure to a map

  • Featured on many professional maps but not a requirement for mapping excellence


Locational inset and neatlines l.jpg
Locational inset and neatlines pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

Neatline

Locational Inset


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Annotation: text that adds meaning to mapped features pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

  • Ownership

  • Road numbers or names

  • Surveying information: PLSS or measurement control markers

  • Stand attributes

  • Stream names


Annotation based map l.jpg
Annotation pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).basedmap


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Color and contrast pictographs for maps (USDI National Park Service 2003).

  • People associate colors of mapped features with events, emotions, and socio-economic status

  • Although men and women react similarly to color, some reactions may vary depending on culture (Valdez & Mehrabin 1994)

  • How do you react to different colors?


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Emotional reactions to colors by southeastern college students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

  • Green - relaxed, calm, and comforted, associated with nature

  • Blue - relaxed, calm, and comforted, yet associated with sadness or loneliness

  • Yellow - lively and energetic, associated with summertime

  • Red - color with love or romance, but also with anger

  • Purple - relaxed and calm, associated with childhood or power

  • White - innocence, peace, purity, or emptiness, and also snowfall or cotton

  • Black - sadness, depression, fear, and darkness, yet also with richness, power, and wealth

  • Gray - negative emotions, bad weather, and foggy days


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Ancillary information students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

  • Author

  • Date

  • Location of map file(s) and supporting data

  • Source data

  • Legal considerations…


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Caveats, warranties, and disclaimers students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

  • Caveats

    • warns others of certain facts in order to prevent misinterpretation of maps

  • Warranties

    • written guarantees of the integrity of a map, and of the map maker’s responsibility for the repair or replacement of incorrect maps

  • Disclaimers

    • used by mapmakers to distance themselves from any legal responsibility for damages that could result from use of their map


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Types of maps students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

  • Thematic maps

  • Contour maps

  • Raster maps

  • Dot density maps

  • Cartogram maps


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Thematic maps students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

  • Use colors, shades, or symbols to describe spatial variation of one or more landscape features

  • An efficient way to draw attention to different landscape conditions or values

  • Choropleth maps are the most common type of thematic map


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(b) Five classes students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

(c) Seven classes

(a) Three classes

Trees per hectare

Trees per hectare

Trees per hectare

0 - 1,000

0 - 20

0 - 500

1,001 - 2,000

21 - 120

501 - 1,000

2,001 +

121 - 160

1,001 - 1,500

161 - 190

1,501 - 2,000

191 - 220

2,001 +

221 - 250

251 +

Figure 4.10. A range of classes of trees per hectare on the Brown Tract illustrated in a choropleth map.


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(b) Quantile interval of classes students (Kaya and Epps 2004)

(a) Equal interval classes

Trees per hectare

Trees per hectare

0 - 277

0 - 249

278 - 593

250 - 499

594 - 873

500 - 749

874 - 1,236

750 - 999

1,237 +

1,000 +

Figure 4.11. An equal interval classification and a quantile interval

classification of trees per hectare on the Brown Tract.





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Figure 4.16. A cartogram map illustrating two measures of forest density for each

stand - trees per acre and basal area per acre on the Brown Tract.

Stand Attribute

Trees per acre

Basal area per acre


Choropleth map l.jpg

0 - 20 forest density for each

21 - 120

121 - 175

176 - 230

231 +

Choropleth map

Basal Area

(ft2 / acre)


Equal interval and quantile maps l.jpg

Basal Area forest density for each

(ft2 / acre)

0 - 20

21 - 120

121 - 175

176 - 230

231 +

Basal Area

(ft2 / acre)

0 - 50

51 - 100

101 - 150

151 - 200

201 +

Equalintervalandquantilemaps


Map setup and balance l.jpg

Title of Map forest density for each

North Arrow

Legend

Landscape

Scale Bar

Map Preparer, etc.

Title of Map

Landscape

North

Arrow

Legend

Scale Bar

Map Preparer, etc.

Mapsetupandbalance


Design loop l.jpg

Develop forest density for each

Map

Get

Feedback

Map

Acceptable?

No

Edit

Map

Yes

Map

Completed

Designloop


What should be on your map l.jpg
What should be on your map? forest density for each

  • Audience- are they all familiar with your study area? Is an inset required?

  • Will others need to track your sources ?

  • Do you need to record where the map is stored?

  • Are revisions expected or will the study area change (date)?

  • Title, scale, author, and north arrow are safe bets

  • Publication outlets may have their own guidelines


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Common map problems forest density for each

  • Wrong audience

  • Omitting a necessary element

  • Too much clutter (symbology)

  • Too much detail (annotation)

  • Plotter or printer produces something different than what you see on the screen


Cartographer responsibility l.jpg
Cartographer Responsibility forest density for each

  • How to Lie with Maps (Monmonier 1996)

  • Drawing the Line, Tales of Maps and Controversy (Monmonier 1995)

  • Models of reality

  • Many simply accept maps at face value

  • Be discriminate in your appraisal and interpretation of maps

  • Be clear and ethical in your creation of maps


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