Edward L. Thorndike. Animals placed in puzzle boxes String pulled, latch released, animal jumps out and receives food Learning by random trial and error Law of Effect – Thorndike’s principle that responses are “stamped in” by rewards and “stamped out” by punishments. B.F. Skinner.
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Police pulling drivers over and giving prizes for buckling up.
A child snaps her fingers until her teacher calls on her.
A hospital patient is allowed extra visiting time after eating a complete meal.
Receiving a city utility discount for participating in a recycling program.
Grounding a teenager until his/her homework is finished.
A parent nagging a child to clean up her room.
A rat presses a lever to terminate a shock or a loud tone.
A professor gives extra credit to students with perfect attendance.
Primary Reinforcers – An unlearned reinforcer.
Ex. Food, water, adequate warmth (positive reinforcers) and pain (negative reinforcer)
Secondary Reinforcers – A stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers.
Ex. Money, attention, social approval
Reward – A pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows.
Considered to synonymous with positive reinforcement.
Punishment – An unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows.
Usually better to reward children for desirable behavior.
Ratio Version – having to do with instances of the behavior.
Ex. – Reinforce or reward the behavior after a set number or x many times that an action or behavior is demonstrated.
Interval Version – having to do with the passage of time.
Ex. – Reinforce the student after a set number or x period of time that the behavior is displayed.
FORM OF REWARD
INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE
EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR
Leads to average and irregular performance
Fast extinction of behavior
Reward on fixed time basis
Reward tied to specific number of responses
Moderately fast extinction of behavior
Leads quickly to very high and stable performance
Reward given after varying periods of time
Leads to moderately high and stable performance
Slow extinction of behavior
Reward given for some behaviors
Leads to very high performance
Very slow extinction of behavior
When I bake cookies, I can only put one set in at a time, so after 10 minutes my first set of cookies is done. After another ten minutes, my second set of cookies is done. I get to eat a cookie after each set is done baking.
After every 10 math problems that I complete, I allow myself a 5 minute break.
I look over my notes every night because I never know how much time will go by before my next pop quiz.
When hunting season comes around, sometimes I’ll spend all day sitting in the woods waiting to get a shot at a big buck. It’s worth it though when I get a nice 10 point.
Today in Psychology class we were talking about Schedules of Reinforcement and everyone was eagerly raising their hands and participating. Miranda raised her hand a couple of times and was eventually called on.
6. Madison spanks her son if she has to ask him three times to clean up his room.
7. Emily has a spelling test every Friday. She usually does well and gets a star sticker.
8. Steve’s a big gambling man. He plays the slot machines all day hoping for a big win.
Snakes get hungry at certain times of the day. They might watch any number of prey go by before they decide to strike.
Mr. Vora receives a salary paycheck every 2 weeks.
Christina works at a tanning salon. For every 2 bottles of lotion she sells, she gets 1 dollar in commission.
12.Mike is trying to study for his upcoming Psychology quiz. He reads five pages, then takes a break. He resumes reading and takes another break after he has completed 5 more pages.
13. Megan is fundraising to try to raise money so she can go on the annual band trip. She goes door to door in her neighborhood trying to sell popcorn tins. She eventually sells some.
14. Kylie is a business girl who works in the big city. Her boss is busy, so he only checks her work periodically.
15. Mark is a lawyer who owns his own practice. His customers makes payments at irregular times.
16. Jessica is a dental assistant and gets a raise every year at the same time and never in between.
17. Andrew works at a GM factory and is in charge of attaching 3 parts. After he gets his parts attached, he gets some free time before the next car moves down the line.
18. Brittany is a telemarketer trying to sell life insurance. After so many calls, someone will eventually buy.
Observational Learning and media Violence
What to do...
1. Violent behavior is not representative of most people
2. Violent behaviors are not real - special effects and technology
3. Most people use other than non-violent means to resolve conflict