Building Energy Simulation Tools:  An Overview

Building Energy Simulation Tools: An Overview PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 338 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Overview. Why building simulation (BS) tools? Application of BS toolsAvailable BS ToolsHow to choose a simulation tool? Performing building simulationExample: Case Study. Why Building Simulation (BS) Tools?. To answer What If" questionsAn inexpensive means for exploring a plethora of diff

Download Presentation

Building Energy Simulation Tools: An Overview

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1. Building Energy Simulation Tools: An Overview Dr. D. Charlie Curcija Dr. Mahabir Bhandari Dr. Lawrence L. Ambs University of Massachusetts MIE Dept. Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 160 Governors Dr. Amherst, MA 01003-9265

2. Overview Why building simulation (BS) tools? Application of BS tools Available BS Tools How to choose a simulation tool? Performing building simulation Example: Case Study

3. Why Building Simulation (BS) Tools? To answer “What If” questions An inexpensive means for exploring a plethora of different design options and HVAC systems Aid in the analysis of energy usage in building Energy conservation studies Building design studies Energy saving potential: energy efficient design and operation Building performance involves complex interactions and designer can experiment with different strategies quickly Help in designing the buildings to conform with Building codes * And 60 to 70% of world electricity use (much of this is needlessly wasted) Possibility L you could study the monitoring results from a building before it is built: user can repeat the simulations many times, trying different options Yet, if design solutions can be investigated without first going through the expensive building process, the number of “what if” questions might increase and the result might be improvements in design as well as energy efficiency of buildings. *The proper balance of strategies and their correct implementation is complex, depending on building use, climate and local context. Conflicts between issues such as needing solar heat gain in winter, avoiding solar heat gain in summer, obtaining sufficient natural light and selecting appropriate equipment can be resolved by the most effective use of design elements. E.g complexity involved in daylighting and energy efficient lights Downsizing HVAC equipment pay for the other improvements (and simulation cost) * And 60 to 70% of world electricity use (much of this is needlessly wasted) Possibility L you could study the monitoring results from a building before it is built: user can repeat the simulations many times, trying different options Yet, if design solutions can be investigated without first going through the expensive building process, the number of “what if” questions might increase and the result might be improvements in design as well as energy efficiency of buildings. *The proper balance of strategies and their correct implementation is complex, depending on building use, climate and local context. Conflicts between issues such as needing solar heat gain in winter, avoiding solar heat gain in summer, obtaining sufficient natural light and selecting appropriate equipment can be resolved by the most effective use of design elements. E.g complexity involved in daylighting and energy efficient lights Downsizing HVAC equipment pay for the other improvements (and simulation cost)

4. Application of BS Tools Building heating/cooling load calculation (peak energy Demand and its profile) Building energy performance analysis, Building energy management and control system design, Building regulations/codes/standards compliance checking Life Cycle Cost analysis Quality Assurance (Commissioning) Building load is the criteria to select and size HVAC equipment, Systems, and plants. Building load is the criteria to select and size HVAC equipment, Systems, and plants.

5. Available BS Tools DOE-2 : Whole building analysis program Interface as eQuest, PowerDoe, VisualDoe, etc. BLAST: building Load Analysis and System Thermodynamics. Uses heat balance method EnergyPlus : Combination of DOE & Blast + additional features Energy10 : For residential and small commercial buildings I.e. buildings with one or two zones or small (<10, 000 ft2) Building Design Advisor: Early stages of design and optimization TRNSYS : Designed to simulate the transient performance of thermal energy system

6. BS Tools Contd. TSBI3 : Easy to use flexible program developed by Danish Building Research Institute, Modular ESP-r : Major European tool. Public domain program, only Unix env., self learning modules COMBINE : Integrates more than 10 design tools into an Intergraph based architectural CAD system More information on these and other simulation tools: www.eren.doe.gov/buildings/tools_directory/

7. Specialized/Component Tools To provide the detailed description of key components such as Detailed Frame calculations Thermal bridges or 2-D heat transfer at window wall interface Air flows Fenestration systems The detailed results are more accurate and act as input to the whole building simulation model

8. Specialized/Component Tools: Partial List For daylighting Superlite, Radiance For building envelopes: THERM: Detailed 2D Analysis of heat transfer WINDOW/OPTICS: Fenestration heat transfer, solar heat gain and solar-optical properties For selecting energy efficient fenestration: RESFEN For multi-zone airflow: COMIS For moisture transport phenomenon : WUFI To improve the aesthetics of the indoor environment To enhance the productivity of occupants To decrease peak electric loads To save on energy and operating cost To reduce emissions of pollutants from power plants including CO2, SO2 and NoxTo improve the aesthetics of the indoor environment To enhance the productivity of occupants To decrease peak electric loads To save on energy and operating cost To reduce emissions of pollutants from power plants including CO2, SO2 and Nox

9. Life Cycle Analysis Tools: Partial List BEES 2.0 Based on consensus standards (ASTM E917, ASTM E1557, ISO 14040 and ASTM E1765) www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/bees.html BLCC Evaluation of Energy & water conservation and Renewable energy projects; Comparative economic measures www.doe2.com ATHENA environmental measures: embodied energy, resource use, air and water pollution, greenhouse gas effects and total solid wastes produced. http://www.athenaSMI.ca LISA LCA in Sustainable Architecture Most case studies for Australia and UK

10. DOE2 A public domain program for building energy analysis; sponsored by DOE It is a portable FORTRAN program and can be used in large variety of computers including PCs Predicts hourly energy use and energy cost INPUTS: Hourly weather information, building description and HVAC system and utility rates Structure BDL, Loads, Systems, Plants and Economics Sequential method to link these models Uses weighting factor method Default libraries for building construction Can use Metric and English units Uses Energy conservation studies Building design studies PowerDoe. It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure (EEM) wizard and a graphical results display module Compromise between steady state method and completet energy balance method. Good for cases where the system response is well defined, but not accurate where system response is dependent on building load and outside conditiond * Seq method: The load model is executed for every space and every hours of the simulation period, followed by system model and then plant model, consequently * Sequential method allows solving of mathematical eqns consequently and serially, thus greatly reducing the efforts for iterative computations eQuest: Visual Doe: Surface craetion and space locations are made easy. Users instead work with blocks, each representing a group of rooms, complete with correctly positioned surfaces, windows, lighting systems, and other modeling features. Blocks can be stretched, stacked and otherwise arranged to create just about any building form. PowerDoe. It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure (EEM) wizard and a graphical results display module Compromise between steady state method and completet energy balance method. Good for cases where the system response is well defined, but not accurate where system response is dependent on building load and outside conditiond * Seq method: The load model is executed for every space and every hours of the simulation period, followed by system model and then plant model, consequently * Sequential method allows solving of mathematical eqns consequently and serially, thus greatly reducing the efforts for iterative computations eQuest: Visual Doe: Surface craetion and space locations are made easy. Users instead work with blocks, each representing a group of rooms, complete with correctly positioned surfaces, windows, lighting systems, and other modeling features. Blocks can be stretched, stacked and otherwise arranged to create just about any building form.

11. DOE 2 flow diagram Basically, DOE-2 has one subprogram for translation of your input (BDL Processor), and four simulation subprograms (LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT and ECON). LOADS, SYSTEMS and PLANT are executed in sequence, with the output of LOADS becoming the input of SYSTEMS, etc. The output then becomes the input to ECON. Each of the simulation subprograms also produces printed reports of the results of its calculations. BDL Processor The Building Description Language (BDL) processor reads the flexibly formatted input data that you supply and translates it into computer recognizable form. It also calculates response factors for the transient heat flow in walls and weighting factors for the thermal response of building spaces. LOADS The LOADS simulation subprogram calculates the sensible and latent components of the hourly heating or cooling load for each user-designated space in the building, assuming that each space is kept at a constant user-specified temperature. LOADS is responsive to weather and solar conditions, to schedules of people, lighting and equipment, to infiltration, to heat transfer through walls, roofs, and windows and to the effect of building shades on solar radiation. HVAC The SYSTEMS subprogram handles secondary systems; PLANT handles primary systems. SYSTEMS calculates the performance of air-side equipment (fans, coils, and ducts); it corrects the constant-temperature loads calculated by the LOADS subprogram by taking into account outside air requirements, hours of equipment operation, equipment control strategies, and thermostat set points. The output of SYSTEMS is air flow and coil loads. PLANT calculates the behavior of boilers, chillers, cooling towers, storage tanks, etc., in satisfying the secondary systems heating and cooling coil loads. It takes into account the part-load characteristics of the primary equipment in order to calculate the fuel and electrical demands of the building. ECON The ECONOMICS subprogram calculates the cost of energy. It can also be used to compare the cost-benefits of different building designs or to calculate savings for retrofits to an existing building. Basically, DOE-2 has one subprogram for translation of your input (BDL Processor), and four simulation subprograms (LOADS, SYSTEMS, PLANT and ECON). LOADS, SYSTEMS and PLANT are executed in sequence, with the output of LOADS becoming the input of SYSTEMS, etc. The output then becomes the input to ECON. Each of the simulation subprograms also produces printed reports of the results of its calculations. BDL Processor The Building Description Language (BDL) processor reads the flexibly formatted input data that you supply and translates it into computer recognizable form. It also calculates response factors for the transient heat flow in walls and weighting factors for the thermal response of building spaces. LOADS The LOADS simulation subprogram calculates the sensible and latent components of the hourly heating or cooling load for each user-designated space in the building, assuming that each space is kept at a constant user-specified temperature. LOADS is responsive to weather and solar conditions, to schedules of people, lighting and equipment, to infiltration, to heat transfer through walls, roofs, and windows and to the effect of building shades on solar radiation. HVAC The SYSTEMS subprogram handles secondary systems; PLANT handles primary systems. SYSTEMS calculates the performance of air-side equipment (fans, coils, and ducts); it corrects the constant-temperature loads calculated by the LOADS subprogram by taking into account outside air requirements, hours of equipment operation, equipment control strategies, and thermostat set points. The output of SYSTEMS is air flow and coil loads. PLANT calculates the behavior of boilers, chillers, cooling towers, storage tanks, etc., in satisfying the secondary systems heating and cooling coil loads. It takes into account the part-load characteristics of the primary equipment in order to calculate the fuel and electrical demands of the building.

12. DOE2: Input File Format DOE2 uses BDL Language processor KEYWORDS are used for the description PowerDoe. It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure (EEM) wizard and a graphical results display module eQuest: Visual Doe: Surface craetion and space locations are made easy. Users instead work with blocks, each representing a group of rooms, complete with correctly positioned surfaces, windows, lighting systems, and other modeling features. Blocks can be stretched, stacked and otherwise arranged to create just about any building form. PowerDoe. It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure (EEM) wizard and a graphical results display module eQuest: Visual Doe: Surface craetion and space locations are made easy. Users instead work with blocks, each representing a group of rooms, complete with correctly positioned surfaces, windows, lighting systems, and other modeling features. Blocks can be stretched, stacked and otherwise arranged to create just about any building form.

13. DOE2 : GUIs BDL file is difficult to create and users need to remember a number of related keywords Graphical User Interfaces: eQuest : Freeware and easy to use. PowerDoe : Graphical presentation of both building description and display of results PowerDoe: Comprehensive GUI VisualDoe : Rooms can be represented by block, ease facades, design alternatives of drag drop, Custom block editor, custom Other… PowerDoe. It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure (EEM) wizard and a graphical results display module eQuest: Visual Doe: Surface craetion and space locations are made easy. Users instead work with blocks, each representing a group of rooms, complete with correctly positioned surfaces, windows, lighting systems, and other modeling features. Blocks can be stretched, stacked and otherwise arranged to create just about any building form. PowerDoe. It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. combining a building creation wizard, an energy efficiency measure (EEM) wizard and a graphical results display module eQuest: Visual Doe: Surface craetion and space locations are made easy. Users instead work with blocks, each representing a group of rooms, complete with correctly positioned surfaces, windows, lighting systems, and other modeling features. Blocks can be stretched, stacked and otherwise arranged to create just about any building form.

14. DOE with GUI: eQuest Easy to use and free simple Graphical User Interface for quick energy analysis Only 31 sheets of details and can be mastered in 2-3 hours Default values and online help available Uses DOE 2.2 as simulation engine Wizard mode has no flexibility of changing data but user inputs can be provided in spreadsheet mode and/or by editing the default library

15. eQuest: Wizard

16. eQuest: Important Data Building geometry : Footprint shape :Triangle, rectangle. L shape, T shape, + shape, U shape, H shape (accordingly the length and width parameters) Number of floors – floor height Zoning pattern: 1 per floor, Perimeter/core Construction: walls/roof, floors/ceiling Windows – area, type, frame, overhangs/fins Internal load Lighting, Occupancy, Equipment with schedules Distribution by spaces HVAC systems System description Heating/cooling set points and Schedules

17. eQuest: Spreadsheet view

18. eQuest: Online Help

19. eQuest: 3D view The three dimensional view of a building allows a user to quickly verify the location of walls, windows, doors, shades, etc. The 3-D view can be interactively rotated with the mouse or cursor keys. Pointing to a wall, window, shade, etc. displays the type of surface and it's U-name. By clicking the mouse, the input screen that describes that surface is displayed, allowing the user to change the value of any keyword (such as orientation or location). If the user saves the changed data, the 3-D view is redrawn using the new data. InThe three dimensional view of a building allows a user to quickly verify the location of walls, windows, doors, shades, etc. The 3-D view can be interactively rotated with the mouse or cursor keys. Pointing to a wall, window, shade, etc. displays the type of surface and it's U-name. By clicking the mouse, the input screen that describes that surface is displayed, allowing the user to change the value of any keyword (such as orientation or location). If the user saves the changed data, the 3-D view is redrawn using the new data. In

20. eQuest: EEM wizard

21. eQuest: Reports

22. Summary of eQuest Advantages: Easy to use interface Detailed interface spreadsheet view : data can be changed but wizard mode can no more be utilized Energy Efficiency Measure wizard Can be used as a preliminary tool for a rough and quick estimation Limitations: Can not accommodate building shape accurately (e.g. assumes that all the floor plans are same). Only 3 floors :ground, middle and top floor can be defined Only one wall type can be defined Only 3 different type of windows and not flexible for window area Materials can not be added in wizard mode

23. DOE with GUI: PowerDOE A window based user friendly and comprehensive graphical user interface DOE2.2 as simulation engine Shapes & Geometry – all opaque surfaces, floors and spaces can be described as arbitrary polygons 3D view-any surface can be selected by just clicking on it 4 modules: Locate site, Describe building, Run calculations and review results Comprehensive online help - data entry field & screen PowerDOE is a complete DOE-2.2-based simulation environment.  It is very graphical in its presentation of both the building description and the display of results.  It is very flexible and is a super-set of DOE-2 capabilities, NOT a subset like most other DOE-2 products.  It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. PowerDOE is an interactive simulation environment, unlike other DOE-2 products which produce DOE-2 BDL files and run the batch DOE-2 BDL/SIM in the background.  PowerDOE stores its building description in the BDL language and is capable of exporting BDL files for portability and compatibility with non-windows implementations of DOE-2.2.  PowerDOE has all documentation online which, like all new DOE-2 documentation, will contain some errors or missing items that will be corrected over time.  PowerDOE, like DOE-2, is complex so training is highly recommended and with training can be picked up quickly - usually in only a couple of days for someone familiar with any energy modeling program. PowerDOE i PowerDOE is a complete DOE-2.2-based simulation environment.  It is very graphical in its presentation of both the building description and the display of results.  It is very flexible and is a super-set of DOE-2 capabilities, NOT a subset like most other DOE-2 products.  It has input, output, weather processing, building component libraries, and other functions integrated into a single windows users interface.  It includes 2-D and 3-D display of your building geometry, graphical display of HVAC equipment layout, and access to all DOE-2.2 input parameters and summary/hourly report data. PowerDOE is an interactive simulation environment, unlike other DOE-2 products which produce DOE-2 BDL files and run the batch DOE-2 BDL/SIM in the background.  PowerDOE stores its building description in the BDL language and is capable of exporting BDL files for portability and compatibility with non-windows implementations of DOE-2.2.  PowerDOE has all documentation online which, like all new DOE-2 documentation, will contain some errors or missing items that will be corrected over time.  PowerDOE, like DOE-2, is complex so training is highly recommended and with training can be picked up quickly - usually in only a couple of days for someone familiar with any energy modeling program. PowerDOE i

24. Building description Building View

25. Polygon :Separate spaces for zoning

26. Locate site

27. Schematic view of Systems

28. Review Results

  • Login