A statistical comparison of amps 10 km and 3 3 km domains
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A STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF AMPS 10-KM AND 3.3-KM DOMAINS. Michael G. Duda, Kevin W. Manning, and Jordan G. Powers Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, NCAR AMPS Users’ Workshop 2004 June 8-10, 2004. Introduction. Purpose:

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A STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF AMPS 10-KM AND 3.3-KM DOMAINS

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A statistical comparison of amps 10 km and 3 3 km domains

A STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF AMPS 10-KM AND 3.3-KM DOMAINS

Michael G. Duda, Kevin W. Manning,

and Jordan G. Powers

Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, NCAR

AMPS Users’ Workshop 2004

June 8-10, 2004


Introduction

Introduction

  • Purpose:

    • Demonstrate the usefulness of statistical significance testing in comparing biases of two domains

    • Determine where biases at McMurdo Station are significantly different in the 3.3-km and 10-km AMPS domains

    • Examine a 7 day period beginning 12Z Nov. 27, 2003 when McMurdo Station was affected by a snowstorm

  • Methodology:

    • Use hypothesis testing to identify statistically significant differences in mean bias

    • Consider only differences that are statistically significant


Domain configuration

Domain Configuration

Compaq OSF/AlphaLinux/Xeon

(SPAWAR machine)


Forecast analysis times

Forecast Analysis Times


Why consider statistical significance

Why Consider Statistical Significance?

  • Mean bias curves do not indicate the variance in the biases

  • Some differences between curves are not as relevant


Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis Testing

  • Consider biases to be from a hypothetical population (assumed to be normally distributed)

  • Let d = x3.3 – x10

    • x3.3 and x10 are biases in 3.3-km and 10-km domains at a given time

  • Perform one-sample Student’s t test

  • H0: d=0

  • Reject H0 with 95% confidence if t t

  • Test statistic:


Hypothesis testing example

Hypothesis Testing Example

Circled pressure levels will be examined in the next two slides


Example 150 hpa temperature

Example: 150 hPa Temperature

  • For this data we can reject the null hypothesis at the 5 percent level

  • This means we reject the hypothesis that the means of the 3.3-km and 10-km bias populations are the same

differences between curves


Example 850 hpa temperature

Example: 850 hPa Temperature

  • For this data we cannot reject the null hypothesis at the 5 percent level

  • This means we cannot reject the hypothesis that the 3.3-km and 10-km bias populations have the same mean

differences between curves


Comparison results temperature

Comparison Results: Temperature

  • Statistically significant differences

    • Surface: 3.3-km grid has warm bias while 10-km grid has a cool bias at hours 24, 36

    • 925 hPa: 3.3-km grid has warm bias while 10-km grid has a cool bias at hours 24, 36

    • 300 hPa: 3.3-km grid has larger warm bias than 10-km grid

  • No statistically significant differences

    • At hours 24 and 36, no significant differences in MAE at any level


24hr temperature mean bias

24hr Temperature (Mean Bias)


36hr temperature mean bias

36hr Temperature (Mean Bias)


24hr temperature mae

24hr Temperature (MAE)


Comparison results wind u component

Comparison Results: Wind U-Component

  • Statistically significant differences

    • Surface: 3.3-km grid has lower positive bias than 10-km grid at forecast hours 12, 24, 36

    • 850 hPa: 3.3-km grid has larger negative bias at forecast hours 12, 24, 36

    • 500 hPa: 3.3-km grid has smaller bias, but MAEs of both grids are similarly large

  • Differences at other levels are not statistically significant


24hr wind u component mean bias

24hr Wind U-Component (Mean Bias)


36hr wind u component mean bias

36hr Wind U-Component (Mean Bias)


24hr wind u component mae

24hr Wind U-Component (MAE)


Example surface temperature

Example: Surface Temperature

35 hr forecast valid 23Z Dec 01, 2003

10-km domain 3.3-km domain


Summary

Summary

  • Use a Student’s t test (at 5 percent level) to perform statistical significance testing on difference between 3.3-km and 10-km biases

  • Identify statistically significant differences on model bias v. pressure plots for McMurdo

  • Consider only statistically significant differences between mean biases to improve objectivity

    • Apparently large differences in mean bias may be statistically insignificant and misleading


Questions

Questions?


Hypothesis testing example1

Hypothesis Testing Example

* Biases at these pressure levels will be examined in the following slides

*

*


Example 400 hpa wind v component

Example: 400 hPa Wind V-Component

For this data we do not reject the null hypothesis at the 95 percent level

differences between curves


Example 925 hpa wind v component

Example: 925 hPa Wind V-Component

For this data we do reject the null hypothesis at the 95 percent level

differences between curves


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