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DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCH AND SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD. DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES - FREQUENCY - NATURAL HISTORY - POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS (HYPOTHESIS) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 OR MORE VARIABLES NO COMPARISON GROUP NO ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION.

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Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCHANDSELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD


DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

- FREQUENCY

- NATURAL HISTORY

- POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS

(HYPOTHESIS)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 OR MORE VARIABLES

NOCOMPARISON GROUP

NO ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION


CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

(SANP SHOT)

FREQUENCY SURVEY

PREVALENCE STUDY

RECORD OUTCOME

RECORD EXPOSURE

ARTHRITIS >>> OBESITY?

OBESITY >>> ARTHRITIS?


Case control study
CASE-CONTROL STUDY

THE OUTCOME

RELATED TO

THE EXPOSURE

MISUNDERSTOOD BECAUSE OF THE DIRECTION

RARE

TAKE TIME TO DEVELOP


Cohort studies
COHORT STUDIES

WHAT IS A COHORT?

TYPES OF COHORT?

- CROSS-SECTIONAL

- LONGITUDINAL

- PROSPECTIVE

- RETROSPECTIVE

- COMBINED PROSPECTIVE-RETROSPECTIVE

+ EXPOSURE PRECEEDS OUTCOME

+ LESSER RECALL BIAS

+ INCIDENCE / RELATIVE RISK / ATTRIBUTABLE RISK

-LONG DURATION

-EXPENSIVE


R c t
R. C. T.

RANDOMIZATION

DELIBERATE PROCESS

IT IS WHAT WE WANT

NOT ANYTHING WE GET


Remember
REMEMBER…

NOCOMPARISON GROUP

NOASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION

OUTCOME

EXPOSURE

OUTCOME related to

PREVALENCE OF EXPOSURE

ARTHRITIS >>> OBESITY

OBESITY >>> ARTHRITIS


Evidence from
EVIDENCE FROM

I LEAST ONE PROPERLY DESIGNED R. C. T.

II-1 WELL-DESIGNED CONTROLLED TRIAL

WITHOUT RANDIMIZATION

II-2 WELL-DESIGNED COHORT /CASE-CONTROL

STUDY (FROM > ONE RESEARCH)

II-3 MULTIPLE TIME SERIES, WITH OR WITHOUT

INTERVENTION OR CONTROLS

III OPINIONS OF RESPECTED AUTHORIIES BASED

ON EXPERIENCE, DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES,

REPORTS, EXPERT COMMITTEES

USPSTF


  • CASE STUDIES

  • CASE SERIES

  • OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

  • ANALYTICAL STUDIES

    ECOLOGICAL / CORRELATIONAL

    CROSS-SECTIONAL / PREVALENCE

    CASE-CONTROL

    COHORT

  • EXPERIMENTAL

    R. C. T.

    FIELD TRIALS

    COMMUNITY TRIALS


Outcome measures
OUTCOME MEASURES

  • RATE= EVENTS OCCURING PER UNIT TIME

  • RATIO= RELATIVE SIZE

  • PROPORTION= HOW MANY OUT OF

    HOW MANY



Q:

RELATIONSHIP OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

A) DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

C) CASE-CONTROL STUDIES


A:

RELATIONSHIP OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

C) CASE-CONTROL STUDIES


Q:

IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE NO COMPARISON GROUP.

TRUE

FALSE


A:

IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE NO COMPARISON GROUP.

FALSE


Q:

Dr. GAUTAM ROY’S HYPOTHESIS:

THE EARTH IS FLAT

IS THAT A “GOOD” HYPOTHESIS?

YES

NO


A:

Dr. GAUTAM ROY’S HYPOTHESIS:

THE EARTH IS FLAT

IS THAT A “GOOD” HYPOTHESIS?

YES, IT IS!


Q:

ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

A) DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

C) COHORT STUDIES


A:

ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES


Q:

CHOOSING THE LAST NUMBER FROM A WAD OF CURRENCY NOTES IN A WALLET IS A RANDOMIZED PROCESS.

CORRECT

NOT CORRECT


A:

CHOOSING THE LAST NUMBER FROM A WAD OF CURRENCY NOTES IN A WALLET IS A RANDOMIZED PROCESS.

NOT CORRECT


Q:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS WHETHER V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.


Q:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS WHETHER V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.

IS THIS INCIDENCE?

IS THIS PREVALENCE?


A:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.

IT IS A PROPORTION


Q:

IN A FACTORY, EVERY YEAR 4 MEN

AND 6 WOMEN RESIGN FROM WORK.

CALCULATE:

RATE OF RESIGNATIONS

RATIO OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGINING

PROPORTION OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGING


A:

IN A FACTORY, EVERY YEAR 4 MEN

AND 6 WOMEN RESIGN FROM WORK.

CALCULATE:

RATE OF RESIGNATIONS

= 10 PER YEAR

RATIO OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGINING

= 2:3

PROPORTION OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGING

= CANNOT SAY


Q:

DISTRIBUTING EARPLUGS TO ALL

WORKERS IN A NOISY FACTORY IS AN

EXAMPLE OF:

NON-RANDIMIZED TRIAL

FIELD TRIAL

COMMUNITY TRIAL


A:

DISTRIBUTING EARPLUGS TO ALL

WORKERS IN A NOISY FACTORY IS AN

EXAMPLE OF:

COMMUNITY TRIAL


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