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DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCH AND SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD. DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES - FREQUENCY - NATURAL HISTORY - POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS (HYPOTHESIS) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 OR MORE VARIABLES NO COMPARISON GROUP NO ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION.

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DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCH AND SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD

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DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCHANDSELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD


DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

- FREQUENCY

- NATURAL HISTORY

- POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS

(HYPOTHESIS)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 OR MORE VARIABLES

NOCOMPARISON GROUP

NO ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION


CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

(SANP SHOT)

FREQUENCY SURVEY

PREVALENCE STUDY

RECORD OUTCOME

RECORD EXPOSURE

ARTHRITIS >>> OBESITY?

OBESITY >>> ARTHRITIS?


CASE-CONTROL STUDY

THE OUTCOME

RELATED TO

THE EXPOSURE

MISUNDERSTOOD BECAUSE OF THE DIRECTION

RARE

TAKE TIME TO DEVELOP


COHORT STUDIES

WHAT IS A COHORT?

TYPES OF COHORT?

- CROSS-SECTIONAL

- LONGITUDINAL

- PROSPECTIVE

- RETROSPECTIVE

- COMBINED PROSPECTIVE-RETROSPECTIVE

+ EXPOSURE PRECEEDS OUTCOME

+ LESSER RECALL BIAS

+ INCIDENCE / RELATIVE RISK / ATTRIBUTABLE RISK

-LONG DURATION

-EXPENSIVE


R. C. T.

RANDOMIZATION

DELIBERATE PROCESS

IT IS WHAT WE WANT

NOT ANYTHING WE GET


REMEMBER…

NOCOMPARISON GROUP

NOASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION

OUTCOME

EXPOSURE

OUTCOME related to

PREVALENCE OF EXPOSURE

ARTHRITIS >>> OBESITY

OBESITY >>> ARTHRITIS


EVIDENCE FROM

ILEAST ONE PROPERLY DESIGNED R. C. T.

II-1WELL-DESIGNED CONTROLLED TRIAL

WITHOUT RANDIMIZATION

II-2WELL-DESIGNED COHORT /CASE-CONTROL

STUDY (FROM > ONE RESEARCH)

II-3MULTIPLE TIME SERIES, WITH OR WITHOUT

INTERVENTION OR CONTROLS

IIIOPINIONS OF RESPECTED AUTHORIIES BASED

ON EXPERIENCE, DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES,

REPORTS, EXPERT COMMITTEES

USPSTF


  • CASE STUDIES

  • CASE SERIES

  • OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

  • ANALYTICAL STUDIES

    ECOLOGICAL / CORRELATIONAL

    CROSS-SECTIONAL / PREVALENCE

    CASE-CONTROL

    COHORT

  • EXPERIMENTAL

    R. C. T.

    FIELD TRIALS

    COMMUNITY TRIALS


OUTCOME MEASURES

  • RATE= EVENTS OCCURING PER UNIT TIME

  • RATIO= RELATIVE SIZE

  • PROPORTION= HOW MANY OUT OF

    HOW MANY


QUESTION - ANSWER


Q:

RELATIONSHIP OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

A) DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

C) CASE-CONTROL STUDIES


A:

RELATIONSHIP OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

C) CASE-CONTROL STUDIES


Q:

IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE NO COMPARISON GROUP.

TRUE

FALSE


A:

IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE NO COMPARISON GROUP.

FALSE


Q:

Dr. GAUTAM ROY’S HYPOTHESIS:

THE EARTH IS FLAT

IS THAT A “GOOD” HYPOTHESIS?

YES

NO


A:

Dr. GAUTAM ROY’S HYPOTHESIS:

THE EARTH IS FLAT

IS THAT A “GOOD” HYPOTHESIS?

YES, IT IS!


Q:

ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

A) DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

C) COHORT STUDIES


A:

ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES


Q:

CHOOSING THE LAST NUMBER FROM A WAD OF CURRENCY NOTES IN A WALLET IS A RANDOMIZED PROCESS.

CORRECT

NOT CORRECT


A:

CHOOSING THE LAST NUMBER FROM A WAD OF CURRENCY NOTES IN A WALLET IS A RANDOMIZED PROCESS.

NOT CORRECT


Q:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS WHETHER V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.


Q:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS WHETHER V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.

IS THIS INCIDENCE?

IS THIS PREVALENCE?


A:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.

IT IS A PROPORTION


Q:

IN A FACTORY, EVERY YEAR 4 MEN

AND 6 WOMEN RESIGN FROM WORK.

CALCULATE:

RATE OF RESIGNATIONS

RATIO OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGINING

PROPORTION OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGING


A:

IN A FACTORY, EVERY YEAR 4 MEN

AND 6 WOMEN RESIGN FROM WORK.

CALCULATE:

RATE OF RESIGNATIONS

= 10 PER YEAR

RATIO OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGINING

= 2:3

PROPORTION OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGING

= CANNOT SAY


Q:

DISTRIBUTING EARPLUGS TO ALL

WORKERS IN A NOISY FACTORY IS AN

EXAMPLE OF:

NON-RANDIMIZED TRIAL

FIELD TRIAL

COMMUNITY TRIAL


A:

DISTRIBUTING EARPLUGS TO ALL

WORKERS IN A NOISY FACTORY IS AN

EXAMPLE OF:

COMMUNITY TRIAL


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