Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method
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DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCH AND SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD. DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES - FREQUENCY - NATURAL HISTORY - POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS (HYPOTHESIS) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 OR MORE VARIABLES NO COMPARISON GROUP NO ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION.

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DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCH AND SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD

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Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES IN RESEARCHANDSELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE METHOD


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

- FREQUENCY

- NATURAL HISTORY

- POSSIBLE DETERMINANTS

(HYPOTHESIS)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 2 OR MORE VARIABLES

NOCOMPARISON GROUP

NO ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

(SANP SHOT)

FREQUENCY SURVEY

PREVALENCE STUDY

RECORD OUTCOME

RECORD EXPOSURE

ARTHRITIS >>> OBESITY?

OBESITY >>> ARTHRITIS?


Case control study

CASE-CONTROL STUDY

THE OUTCOME

RELATED TO

THE EXPOSURE

MISUNDERSTOOD BECAUSE OF THE DIRECTION

RARE

TAKE TIME TO DEVELOP


Cohort studies

COHORT STUDIES

WHAT IS A COHORT?

TYPES OF COHORT?

- CROSS-SECTIONAL

- LONGITUDINAL

- PROSPECTIVE

- RETROSPECTIVE

- COMBINED PROSPECTIVE-RETROSPECTIVE

+ EXPOSURE PRECEEDS OUTCOME

+ LESSER RECALL BIAS

+ INCIDENCE / RELATIVE RISK / ATTRIBUTABLE RISK

-LONG DURATION

-EXPENSIVE


R c t

R. C. T.

RANDOMIZATION

DELIBERATE PROCESS

IT IS WHAT WE WANT

NOT ANYTHING WE GET


Remember

REMEMBER…

NOCOMPARISON GROUP

NOASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION

OUTCOME

EXPOSURE

OUTCOME related to

PREVALENCE OF EXPOSURE

ARTHRITIS >>> OBESITY

OBESITY >>> ARTHRITIS


Evidence from

EVIDENCE FROM

ILEAST ONE PROPERLY DESIGNED R. C. T.

II-1WELL-DESIGNED CONTROLLED TRIAL

WITHOUT RANDIMIZATION

II-2WELL-DESIGNED COHORT /CASE-CONTROL

STUDY (FROM > ONE RESEARCH)

II-3MULTIPLE TIME SERIES, WITH OR WITHOUT

INTERVENTION OR CONTROLS

IIIOPINIONS OF RESPECTED AUTHORIIES BASED

ON EXPERIENCE, DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES,

REPORTS, EXPERT COMMITTEES

USPSTF


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

  • CASE STUDIES

  • CASE SERIES

  • OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES

  • ANALYTICAL STUDIES

    ECOLOGICAL / CORRELATIONAL

    CROSS-SECTIONAL / PREVALENCE

    CASE-CONTROL

    COHORT

  • EXPERIMENTAL

    R. C. T.

    FIELD TRIALS

    COMMUNITY TRIALS


Outcome measures

OUTCOME MEASURES

  • RATE= EVENTS OCCURING PER UNIT TIME

  • RATIO= RELATIVE SIZE

  • PROPORTION= HOW MANY OUT OF

    HOW MANY


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

QUESTION - ANSWER


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

RELATIONSHIP OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

A) DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

C) CASE-CONTROL STUDIES


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

RELATIONSHIP OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

C) CASE-CONTROL STUDIES


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE NO COMPARISON GROUP.

TRUE

FALSE


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO MAKE CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES THAT HAVE NO COMPARISON GROUP.

FALSE


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

Dr. GAUTAM ROY’S HYPOTHESIS:

THE EARTH IS FLAT

IS THAT A “GOOD” HYPOTHESIS?

YES

NO


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

Dr. GAUTAM ROY’S HYPOTHESIS:

THE EARTH IS FLAT

IS THAT A “GOOD” HYPOTHESIS?

YES, IT IS!


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

A) DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES

C) COHORT STUDIES


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

ASSESSMENT OF ASSOCIATION IS POSSIBLE WITH:

B) CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

CHOOSING THE LAST NUMBER FROM A WAD OF CURRENCY NOTES IN A WALLET IS A RANDOMIZED PROCESS.

CORRECT

NOT CORRECT


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

CHOOSING THE LAST NUMBER FROM A WAD OF CURRENCY NOTES IN A WALLET IS A RANDOMIZED PROCESS.

NOT CORRECT


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS WHETHER V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS WHETHER V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.

IS THIS INCIDENCE?

IS THIS PREVALENCE?


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

Dr. Obgy AUSCULTATES ALL NEWBORNS IN THE LABOR ROOM AND RECORDS V.S.D.+ OR V.S.D.–

AT THE END OF ONE WEEK HE HAS SEEN 100 NEWBORNS OF WHICH 3 HAVE VSD.

IT IS A PROPORTION


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

IN A FACTORY, EVERY YEAR 4 MEN

AND 6 WOMEN RESIGN FROM WORK.

CALCULATE:

RATE OF RESIGNATIONS

RATIO OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGINING

PROPORTION OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGING


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

IN A FACTORY, EVERY YEAR 4 MEN

AND 6 WOMEN RESIGN FROM WORK.

CALCULATE:

RATE OF RESIGNATIONS

= 10 PER YEAR

RATIO OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGINING

= 2:3

PROPORTION OF MEN and WOMEN RESIGING

= CANNOT SAY


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

Q:

DISTRIBUTING EARPLUGS TO ALL

WORKERS IN A NOISY FACTORY IS AN

EXAMPLE OF:

NON-RANDIMIZED TRIAL

FIELD TRIAL

COMMUNITY TRIAL


Different techniques in research and selection of an appropriate method

A:

DISTRIBUTING EARPLUGS TO ALL

WORKERS IN A NOISY FACTORY IS AN

EXAMPLE OF:

COMMUNITY TRIAL


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