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THE GREAT WAR. LATER BECAME KNOWN AS WORLD WAR I. Major Causes . Militarism Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism MAIN. Militarism. Militarism; by 1890 Germany was the most powerful nation in Europe. (strong military)

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the great war

THE GREAT WAR

LATER BECAME KNOWN AS WORLD WAR I

major causes
Major Causes
  • Militarism
  • Alliance System
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism
  • MAIN
militarism
Militarism
  • Militarism; by 1890 Germany was the most powerful nation in Europe. (strong military)
  • Nations needed a strong military to defend and control its Colonies, which it had gained through Imperialism
  • By 1900 European nations and the USA began to create and build strong navies; Ships could travel around the world to defend colonies.
alliance system
Alliance System
  • Alliance System; By 1907 two major groups emerged;
  • Triple Entente/Allies; consisted of France, England and Russia
  • Triple Alliance/Central Powers; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Italy
  • These nations would defend each other in time of war. International Security
imperialism
Imperialism
  • Imperialism; a major nation takes over a smaller nation to control the (smaller)nation’s natural resources and use a shipping port for trade.
  • There was constant disputes and conflicts between major nations over control of the natural resources and world wide trade.
nationalism
Nationalism
  • Nationalism; it means devotion of one’s nation; Patriotism
  • It is the belief that one nation is superior to another nation; extreme
  • Superior nation had the responsibility to take over another nation and control it for;
  • Trade; spread religion; spread culture; use and control natural resources
problems in europe
Problems in Europe
  • Small nations wanted Independence
  • Ethnic groups under the control of a larger and more powerful nation
  • A lot of tension/dislike between nations
  • One event would explode Europe into war
  • Europe had long history of wars
event that caused ww1
Event that caused WW1
  • Assassination of Archduke Frantz Ferdinand
  • June 1914 as he and his wife, Sophie, were visiting Sarajevo. (in Austria-Hungary)
  • He was heir to the Austrian throne.
  • GavriloPrincip, member of The Black Hand, group favored Serbian independence, killed Ferdinand. Serbia was a small nation.
assassination of archduke
Assassination of Archduke
  • The assassination of Frantz Ferdinand sparked a crisis among European nations
  • July 28, 1914 A-H declared war on Serbia
  • Nations chose sides (alliance system) and on August 1 Germany declared war on Russia and on August 3 Germany declared war on France.
  • Germany had a treaty with Austria-Hungary; Russia and France were allies and when Germany invaded Belgium England declared on Germany.
war begins in august 1914
War Begins in August 1914
  • Trench Warfare used in WW1
  • Soldiers fought from opposing long and winding ditches or trenches
  • 10 -12 feet deep and disease ridden
  • Soldiers would sleep and eat in the trenches
  • Destroyed the terrain/land;
no man s land
No Man’s Land
  • No Man’s Land; located between the trenches
  • A signal was given by the commanding officer and soldiers would charge across No Man’s Land to the opposing trench and attempt to kill or capture the enemy
  • This was a brutal and harsh method of war
  • Thousands died in a few hours of fighting
  • Soldiers fought hand to hand at times
usa remains neutral
USA remains Neutral
  • USA was an ally of England and France but did not enter WW1 when it started.
  • USA was trade partners with Allied nations; continued to trade as war raged
  • USA companies made large profits
  • USA sold millions of dollars of supplies to the Allied nations. USA economy expand
lusitania
Lusitania
  • May 7, 1915 British ship Lusitania was sunk by a German U-Boat (submarine) off the coast of Ireland.
  • It was secretly carrying war supplies and 128 Americans died (total 1198 died)
  • Germany believed it had the right to sink the Lusitania
  • USA believed it did not have the right to attack
1916 usa presidential election
1916 USA Presidential Election
  • Woodrow Wilson elected and he “kept us out of the war”.
  • How long would the USA remain neutral?
  • President Wilson called for peace, but neither side would cooperate
  • 40 nations would become involved in The Great War
usa enters the great war
USA enters The Great War
  • Zimmermann Note/Telegraph/February 1917
  • Letter from Germany to Mexico and stated; if Mexico would help Germany fight against the USA in WW1 then after WW1 Germany would help Mexico re-capture Texas, Arizona and New Mexico.
  • Over the next few months 4 USA ships sunk by Germany.
usa declares war
USA declares war
  • April 4, 1917 US Congress declares war on Germany
  • Wilson’s peace plan “to make the world safe for democracy” fails
  • Selective Service Act (draft) 1.75 million serve in combat
  • 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units; awarded many medals
women and the great war
Women and The Great War
  • 13,000 women served as nurses, secretaries and telephone operators.
new weapons
New Weapons
  • Machine guns
  • Airplanes
  • Submarines
  • Artillery Guns
  • Poison Gas
  • Tanks
usa army
USA Army
  • American CommanderGeneral John J. Pershing
  • Doughboys; nickname given to USA soldiers
  • Alvin York; USA sergeant; captured 132 German soldiers; national hero
  • Originally he refused to join the military
  • Conscientious objector (religious reasons)
  • From TN and went back and started a school
usa home front
USA Home Front
  • War Industries Board; US govt agency monitored US economy and businesses to make sure supplies were manufactured to be sent to the Military overseas
  • USA businesses made big profits
  • USA govt paid USA companies to produce war supplies-uniforms/guns/food/tanks/ships
  • War is good for the economy; war products cost more than consumer products
food administration
Food Administration
  • Food Administrator Herbert Hoover
  • US govt agency to make sure enough food was produced for both soldiers and civilians
  • Wheatless Wednesdays
  • Meatless Mondays
  • victory gardens grown by school children
paying for war
Paying for War
  • Liberty Loans
  • Victory Loans
  • Methods to raise money to pay for the cost of the Great War
  • Similar to saving bonds
great migration
Great Migration
  • Black Exodus/Black Migration
  • Hundreds of thousands of African-Americans moved to northern urban centers in the 1910s and 1920s (continued into the 1970s) to get jobs in war factories; escape prejudice/discrimination
  • Started a new life and new opportunities
  • Built Black churches, schools, neighborhoods and business; very very successful
creating a lasting peace
Creating a lasting peace
  • President Wilson; 14 Points Speech
  • January 18, 1918
  • 14 provisions
  • Achieve world wide peace
  • No secret treaties between nations
  • Free trade and freedom of the seas
  • No more Imperialism/owning colonies
league of nations
League of Nations
  • 14th Point
  • Creation of an international organization of nations that would settle disputes and prevent future wars. It would solve problems and conflicts between nations.
  • The League of Nations
  • All nations would be represented and have a voice in world affairs
league of nations1
League of Nations
  • USA never joined The League of Nations
  • USA Foreign Policy 1920s-1941 Isolationism
  • Not to become involved in foreign affairs and events
  • Why? USA just fought The Great War and lost thousands of men; cost was very expensive
  • USA wanted to forget about horrors of war
  • League of Nations would involve USA in events
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Treaty after The Great War/4 major provisions
  • Germany had to take responsibility for starting The Great War (War-Guilt Clause)
  • Germany to pay reparation($) to re-build nations;
  • Germany had to reduce the size of its army
  • Germany lost land and population
  • USA never signed Treaty of Versailles
armistice and end of the war
Armistice and end of the war
  • November 11, 1918 at 11am the Armistice took effort and the fighting stopped
  • USA lost 48,000 in battle;
  • 62,000 lost to disease
  • 22million total dead
  • 1920s; time period of entertainment and outrageous behavior and activities
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