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THE GREAT WAR. LATER BECAME KNOWN AS WORLD WAR I. Major Causes . Militarism Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism MAIN. Militarism. Militarism; by 1890 Germany was the most powerful nation in Europe. (strong military)

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The great war

THE GREAT WAR

LATER BECAME KNOWN AS WORLD WAR I


Major causes
Major Causes

  • Militarism

  • Alliance System

  • Imperialism

  • Nationalism

  • MAIN


Militarism
Militarism

  • Militarism; by 1890 Germany was the most powerful nation in Europe. (strong military)

  • Nations needed a strong military to defend and control its Colonies, which it had gained through Imperialism

  • By 1900 European nations and the USA began to create and build strong navies; Ships could travel around the world to defend colonies.


Alliance system
Alliance System

  • Alliance System; By 1907 two major groups emerged;

  • Triple Entente/Allies; consisted of France, England and Russia

  • Triple Alliance/Central Powers; Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Italy

  • These nations would defend each other in time of war. International Security


Imperialism
Imperialism

  • Imperialism; a major nation takes over a smaller nation to control the (smaller)nation’s natural resources and use a shipping port for trade.

  • There was constant disputes and conflicts between major nations over control of the natural resources and world wide trade.


Nationalism
Nationalism

  • Nationalism; it means devotion of one’s nation; Patriotism

  • It is the belief that one nation is superior to another nation; extreme

  • Superior nation had the responsibility to take over another nation and control it for;

  • Trade; spread religion; spread culture; use and control natural resources


Problems in europe
Problems in Europe

  • Small nations wanted Independence

  • Ethnic groups under the control of a larger and more powerful nation

  • A lot of tension/dislike between nations

  • One event would explode Europe into war

  • Europe had long history of wars


Event that caused ww1
Event that caused WW1

  • Assassination of Archduke Frantz Ferdinand

  • June 1914 as he and his wife, Sophie, were visiting Sarajevo. (in Austria-Hungary)

  • He was heir to the Austrian throne.

  • GavriloPrincip, member of The Black Hand, group favored Serbian independence, killed Ferdinand. Serbia was a small nation.


Assassination of archduke
Assassination of Archduke

  • The assassination of Frantz Ferdinand sparked a crisis among European nations

  • July 28, 1914 A-H declared war on Serbia

  • Nations chose sides (alliance system) and on August 1 Germany declared war on Russia and on August 3 Germany declared war on France.

  • Germany had a treaty with Austria-Hungary; Russia and France were allies and when Germany invaded Belgium England declared on Germany.


War begins in august 1914
War Begins in August 1914

  • Trench Warfare used in WW1

  • Soldiers fought from opposing long and winding ditches or trenches

  • 10 -12 feet deep and disease ridden

  • Soldiers would sleep and eat in the trenches

  • Destroyed the terrain/land;


No man s land
No Man’s Land

  • No Man’s Land; located between the trenches

  • A signal was given by the commanding officer and soldiers would charge across No Man’s Land to the opposing trench and attempt to kill or capture the enemy

  • This was a brutal and harsh method of war

  • Thousands died in a few hours of fighting

  • Soldiers fought hand to hand at times


Usa remains neutral
USA remains Neutral

  • USA was an ally of England and France but did not enter WW1 when it started.

  • USA was trade partners with Allied nations; continued to trade as war raged

  • USA companies made large profits

  • USA sold millions of dollars of supplies to the Allied nations. USA economy expand


Lusitania
Lusitania

  • May 7, 1915 British ship Lusitania was sunk by a German U-Boat (submarine) off the coast of Ireland.

  • It was secretly carrying war supplies and 128 Americans died (total 1198 died)

  • Germany believed it had the right to sink the Lusitania

  • USA believed it did not have the right to attack


1916 usa presidential election
1916 USA Presidential Election

  • Woodrow Wilson elected and he “kept us out of the war”.

  • How long would the USA remain neutral?

  • President Wilson called for peace, but neither side would cooperate

  • 40 nations would become involved in The Great War


Usa enters the great war
USA enters The Great War

  • Zimmermann Note/Telegraph/February 1917

  • Letter from Germany to Mexico and stated; if Mexico would help Germany fight against the USA in WW1 then after WW1 Germany would help Mexico re-capture Texas, Arizona and New Mexico.

  • Over the next few months 4 USA ships sunk by Germany.


Usa declares war
USA declares war

  • April 4, 1917 US Congress declares war on Germany

  • Wilson’s peace plan “to make the world safe for democracy” fails

  • Selective Service Act (draft) 1.75 million serve in combat

  • 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units; awarded many medals


Women and the great war
Women and The Great War

  • 13,000 women served as nurses, secretaries and telephone operators.


New weapons
New Weapons

  • Machine guns

  • Airplanes

  • Submarines

  • Artillery Guns

  • Poison Gas

  • Tanks


Usa army
USA Army

  • American CommanderGeneral John J. Pershing

  • Doughboys; nickname given to USA soldiers

  • Alvin York; USA sergeant; captured 132 German soldiers; national hero

  • Originally he refused to join the military

  • Conscientious objector (religious reasons)

  • From TN and went back and started a school


Usa home front
USA Home Front

  • War Industries Board; US govt agency monitored US economy and businesses to make sure supplies were manufactured to be sent to the Military overseas

  • USA businesses made big profits

  • USA govt paid USA companies to produce war supplies-uniforms/guns/food/tanks/ships

  • War is good for the economy; war products cost more than consumer products


Food administration
Food Administration

  • Food Administrator Herbert Hoover

  • US govt agency to make sure enough food was produced for both soldiers and civilians

  • Wheatless Wednesdays

  • Meatless Mondays

  • victory gardens grown by school children


Paying for war
Paying for War

  • Liberty Loans

  • Victory Loans

  • Methods to raise money to pay for the cost of the Great War

  • Similar to saving bonds


Great migration
Great Migration

  • Black Exodus/Black Migration

  • Hundreds of thousands of African-Americans moved to northern urban centers in the 1910s and 1920s (continued into the 1970s) to get jobs in war factories; escape prejudice/discrimination

  • Started a new life and new opportunities

  • Built Black churches, schools, neighborhoods and business; very very successful


Creating a lasting peace
Creating a lasting peace

  • President Wilson; 14 Points Speech

  • January 18, 1918

  • 14 provisions

  • Achieve world wide peace

  • No secret treaties between nations

  • Free trade and freedom of the seas

  • No more Imperialism/owning colonies


League of nations
League of Nations

  • 14th Point

  • Creation of an international organization of nations that would settle disputes and prevent future wars. It would solve problems and conflicts between nations.

  • The League of Nations

  • All nations would be represented and have a voice in world affairs


League of nations1
League of Nations

  • USA never joined The League of Nations

  • USA Foreign Policy 1920s-1941 Isolationism

  • Not to become involved in foreign affairs and events

  • Why? USA just fought The Great War and lost thousands of men; cost was very expensive

  • USA wanted to forget about horrors of war

  • League of Nations would involve USA in events


Treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles

  • Treaty after The Great War/4 major provisions

  • Germany had to take responsibility for starting The Great War (War-Guilt Clause)

  • Germany to pay reparation($) to re-build nations;

  • Germany had to reduce the size of its army

  • Germany lost land and population

  • USA never signed Treaty of Versailles


Armistice and end of the war
Armistice and end of the war

  • November 11, 1918 at 11am the Armistice took effort and the fighting stopped

  • USA lost 48,000 in battle;

  • 62,000 lost to disease

  • 22million total dead

  • 1920s; time period of entertainment and outrageous behavior and activities


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