Reproductive cycle
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Reproductive Cycle. Ch. 28-3. Female Reproductive Cycle. Ovarian Cycle – events in the ovaries that occur during and after the maturation of an oocyte

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Reproductive Cycle

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Reproductive cycle

Reproductive Cycle

Ch. 28-3


Female reproductive cycle

Female Reproductive Cycle

  • Ovarian Cycle – events in the ovaries that occur during and after the maturation of an oocyte

  • Menstrual Cycle – changes in the endometrium (lining) of the uterus to prepare for the arrival of a fertilized ovum that will develop until birth

  • Female reproductive cycle includes both of these


Hormones of cycles

Hormones of Cycles

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

    • Secreted by hypothalamus

    • Stimulates release of FSH and LH

      • Stimulate release of egg from ovaries

  • Estrogens

    • Secreted by ovaries

    • Promote development of sex characteristics

  • Progesterone

    • Secreted by ovaries

    • Prepare and maintain endometrium for implantation

    • Prepare mammary glands for milk secretion


Hormones of cycles1

Hormones of Cycles

  • Relaxin

    • Relaxes the uterus by inhibiting contractions

    • Increases flexibility of pubic symphysis

    • Helps dilate cervix

  • Inhibin

    • Secreted after ovulation

    • Inhibits secretion of FSH and LH


Hormonal changes

Hormonal Changes

Tortora & Grabowski 9/e 2000 JWS


Summary

Summary

  • Cycle is counted from 1st day of last period

  • Menstruation lasts 4-5 days

  • Proliferative phase (13 days)

    • Endometrium fills will tissue and blood

    • Ovulation occurs around day 14

  • Secretory phase (10 days)

    • If egg is fertilized, tissue stays to care for fetus

    • If egg is not, menstrual phase begins again


Birth control

Birth Control

  • Oral contraceptives (the pill) – inhibits FSH and LH from being released, ovulation doesn’t occur, no egg for fertilization – close to 100% effective

  • “morning-after-pill” – causes shedding of lining (induces period) to prevent implantation

  • IUD – prevent implantation in uterus by changing lining

  • Spermicides – kill sperm, more effective with use of condom or diaphragm


Birth control1

Birth Control

  • Barrier methods – prevent sperm from getting into uterus (condoms, diaphragm); also helps protect against STD’s

  • Periodic Abstinence – couple learns “cycle” and abstains during that time


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