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Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function. Cell theory All living things are made up of cells Cells are the basic unit of structure and function All cells come from pre-existing cells. Scientists. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. Discovered life in pond water. How did he discover life so small?

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chapter 7 cell structure and function
Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function
  • Cell theory
    • All living things are made up of cells
    • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function
    • All cells come from pre-existing cells
anton van leeuwenhoek
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  • Discovered life in pond water.
  • How did he discover life so small?
  • He was credited for developing the first simple…



robert hooke
Robert Hooke
  • Looked at a cork under a microscope and saw tiny chambers in it.
  • He called those tiny chambers (small rooms)…


robert brown
Robert Brown
  • Saw a dark spot in the middle of the cell and called it a…


  • All plants were made up of cells.
  • Schleiden weedin’
  • All animals were made up of cells.
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells.
structure of cells
Structure of Cells
  • What regulates what enters and exits the cell?
  • Cell Membrane
    • Lipid bilayer-protection
    • Protein-act as a pump
    • Carbohydrates-regulates what goes in and out (bouncer checks IDs)
What is only found in plant cells (for added protection)?
  • Cell Wall
    • Protects cell
    • Porous-allow material in and out
    • Pectin-holds other cells together
    • Cellulose-roughage, adds more protection
    • Lignin-makes rigid (stronger from wind)
Eukaryote- has a nucleus (eu=you, You have a nucleus)
  • Prokaryote- does not have a nucleus (Pro=NO)
    • (some single celled organisms)


Nuclear membrane

  • Chromosomes-contains genetic info. pass from one generation to the next.
  • ChromatIN- material IN chromosomes
  • DNA-(DNA and protein found in chromatin)
  • RNA and ribosomes- found in nucleolus
  • Cyto=cell
  • Skeleton=structure that supports and shapes
  • Microtubules-help cell maintain shape
  • Microfilaments-help function in cell mov’t and support
  • Cytoplasmic streaming
    • mov’t in the cytoplasm
  • What is an organelle? How does it compare to an organ found in a human body?
    • Organelle is a “tiny organ” found in cells. Has a specific job to do for the cell.
organelles in the cytoplasm
Organelles in the Cytoplasm
  • Ribosomes- make proteins.
    • Free- in cytoplasm
    • Attached- ribosomes attached to Rough ER.
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum- assembles and modifies protein.
    • Rough ER- has ribosomes on it
    • Smooth ER- does NOT have ribosomes on it
more organelles
More organelles…
  • Golgi apparatus- (UPS) packages, modifies, and distributes carbohydrates and lipids to proteins.
  • Lysosomes- Enzymes that digest old and unused material within a cell.
    • (Lysol) clean up crew.
  • Vacuoles- stores water, salts, carbs., proteins
    • Plants have one very larger vacuole
    • Animals have smaller vacuoles
organelles still continued
Organelles still continued…
  • Chloroplast- use NRG from the sun to make food.
    • Only found in plants (photosynthesis)
  • Mitochondria- cells use chemical NRG (from food) and converts it into NRG the cell can use for growth, mov’t, and development.
  • Centrioles- aid in cell division.
cell city project
You and a partner will construct a 3-D model of a cell in comparison to a city.

You will need to include the following organelles in your city.

Type up a reason of what you chose to represent the organelles and why you chose it.

Also include the definitions.

Everything must be neatly typed.

Cell membrane




Nuclear membrane

Free Ribosomes

Attached Ribosome

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus





Cell City Project
movement through cell membrane
Movement through Cell Membrane
  • Diffusion- mov’t of molecules from an area of Higher concentration to Lower concentration. (DHL)
    • Doesn’t require cell to use NRG
    • Moves until reaches equilibrium (actually it keeps moving equally in both directions)
  • Osmosis- diffusion of WATER through a selectively permeable membrane.
    • Doesn’t require NRG
  • Permeable- substance can cross the membrane
  • Selectively Permeable- some subs. are able to cross membrane while others cannnot
  • Impermeable- subs. cannot cross membrane.
osmotic pressure
Osmotic Pressure
  • What if too much water and pressure build up?
  • The plant could internal explode.
    • Typically doesn’t happen because of cell wall prevents cells from expanding too much.
facilitated diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
  • Does not require NRG
  • Membrane Proteins “help” the diffusion process.
active transport
Active Transport
  • Active- requires NRG
  • Acts like a pump
  • Endocytosis- infold the membrane around food.
  • Phagocytosis-when food is taken in by endocytosis, the cytoplasm engulfs particles.
  • Exocytosis- removal of large amounts of material out of a cell.




levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • Cells
  • Tissues-group of similar cells
  • Organs-group of tissues that work together
  • Organ system- group of organs
  • Organism- all organ systems working together.

Cell specialization- cell that perform a special funtion.