American Literature:

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Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007. Lecture Outline. A Brief Review Romanticism in America (Continued)Reading Assignments. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007. Literary Eras. 1. Puritanism and colonial literature2. Reason and Revolution3. Romanticism4. Realism5. M

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American Literature:

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1. American Literature: Literary Eras and Authors Week Five

2. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Lecture Outline A Brief Review Romanticism in America (Continued) Reading Assignments

3. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Literary Eras 1. Puritanism and colonial literature 2. Reason and Revolution 3. Romanticism 4. Realism 5. Modernism

4. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 1. Puritanism and Colonial Literature Historical background Amerian national history started from two settlements, Virginia and Massachusetts in 17th century. Settlers: Dutch, Swedes, Germans, French, Spaniards, Italians, Portuguese, Negroes, Indians First permanent settlement: Jamestown, Virginia by captian John Smith The first American writer: John Smith Two Important New England Settlements Puritan Crisis

5. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Two Important New England Settlements The Plymouth Colony Flagship Mayflower arrives in 1620; Leader - William Bradford; Settlers known as Pilgrims and Separatists; The Mayflower Compact provides for social, religious, and economic freedom, while still maintaining ties to Great Britain. The Massachusetts Bay Colony Flagship Arbella arrives in 1630; Leader - John Winthrop; Settlers are mostly Puritans; The Arbella Covenant clearly establishes a religious and theocratic settlement, free of ties to Great Britain.

6. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Puritan Crisis 1. Roger Williams was expelled for "new and dangerous opinions" ((1638) 2. Puritans persecuted and killed Quakers for preaching "inner light" doctrines. 3. Salem Witchcraft Crisis (1692) A. Group of girls accused fellow villagers of witchcraft B. Trials resulted in convictions of many and executions of 20 people and 2 dogs. C. Reaction resulted in anti-Puritan sentiment, weakening of Puritan authority, and apologies from some religious leaders

7. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Puritan Beliefs Exodus 22:18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.  (KJV) Leviticus  20:27 A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be upon them. (KJV)

8. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Salem Witchcraft Crisis From June through September of 1692, nineteen men and women, all having been convicted of witchcraft, were carted to Gallows Hill, a barren slope near Salem Village, for hanging. Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. Hundreds of others faced accusations of witchcraft; dozens languished in jail for months without trials until the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts subsided.

9. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Salem Witchcraft Crisis

10. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Colonial Writers Captain John Smith John Cotton and Cotton Mather William Bradford and John Winthrop Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor

11. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Puritanism Puritan Beliefs and Values  A. Total Depravity - through Adam and Eve's fall, every person is born sinful - concept of Original Sin. B. Predestination--all events are foreknown and foreordained by God C. Election--God chooses who is saved and who is damned. D. Intolerance--error must be opposed and driven out E. Self-government and community responsibility F. Hard work and thrift G. High standards of moral excellence and conscience

12. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 2. Reason and Revolution Historical Background: The War of Independence Literary Trend: Reason & Revolution Style: Essay, Political Pamphleteering, State Papers

13. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Authors and Their Works Benjamin Franklin: Autobiography Poor Richard’s Almanac Thomas Paine: American Crisis Common Sense The Age of Reason Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence

14. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Life Achievements Major Works: Autobiography Poor Richard’s Almanac

15. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 From Poor Richard’s Almanac Light purse, heavy heart. Eat to live, and not live to eat. Tongue double, brings trouble. Snowy winter, a plentiful harvest. Would you live with ease, do what you ought, and not what you please. Don't think to hunt two hares with one dog.

16. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Life and achievement Major works: Common Sense American Crisis

17. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Life and Achievement of Thomas Paine Having a gift for pamphleteering. Served on various committees of the Continental Congress. Indicted treason for his “Rights of Man” by British Government. Took part in the French Revolution

18. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) Life and achievement Major works: The Declaration of Independence

19. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Life and Achievement of Thomas Jefferson Born in Virginia in 1743. Went to William and Mary College for 2-year study, prepared the practice of law. Elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1769. Represented Virginia in the Second Continental Congress in 1775. Drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Worked as the first American Secretary of State in Washington’s Cabinet. Won the election of 1800 and served for two terms president. Founded the national library( Library of Congress) Founded the University of Virginia, designed the main building and became the first president of this university.

20. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Jefferson’s Memorial

21. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 University of Virginia

22. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Jefferson’s House

23. Lecture V, American Literature (1) Autumn 2007 Philip Freneau (1752-1832) - Father of American Poetry

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