NOTES FOR EXAM 3 BEGIN HERE… Chapter 10: Conditioned Reinforcement. A scenario…. Imagine you are lost… You finally stumble upon a landmark that is familiar to you You become happy because you know how to get home from this spot
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You finally stumble upon a landmark that is familiar to you
You become happy because you know how to get home from this spot
This “spot” is both a CS that elicits happiness as well as an SD for the behavior of “getting home.”
There is also a THIRD function of this stimulus
It has also served as a reinforcer for the “stumbling around” behavior that led you to it
In fact, if we consider any series of linked behaviors (like following directions or recipes, etc.), the consequence of completing each step is both a reinforcer for completing that step as well as an SD for completing the NEXT step
For complex tasks with many steps, often better to teach the final step FIRST and reinforce its completion
After practicing this final unit many times and reinforcing its completion many times, ACESS to this unit of SD -> R -> SR will now serve as am effective conditioned reinforcer for the second to last unit on the chain of behavior
After practicing the second to last and final unit many times, ACESS to the SECOND TO LAST unit of SD -> R -> SR will now serve as am effective conditioned reinforcer for the THIRD to last unit on the chain of behavior
And so on!
Note that we are not doing the behavior in reverse! We are simply completing the final step first in our teaching procedure
Other conditioned reinforcers are economic since they are exchangeable for goods and services. Probably the most important such reinforcement is money.
A token economy is a set of contingencies based on token reinforcement; the contingencies specify when and under what conditions, particular forms of behavior are reinforced with tokens. Tokens are exchangeable for a variety of backup reinforcers.
Chapter 11Correspondence Relations: Imitation and Rule-Governed Behavior
Other people reinforce our behavior if there is consistency (“correspondence”) between spoken words and later performance.
A minister who preaches moral conduct and lives a moral life is valued; when moral words and moral deeds do not match, people become upset and act to correct the inconsistency. (They deliver punishment!)
In contrast with the term language, verbal behavior deals with the performance of a speaker and the environmental conditions that establish and maintain such performance
Verbal behavior refers to the vocal, written and gestural performance of a speaker, writer or communicator. This behavior operates on the listener, reader or observer, who then arranges reinforcement of the verbal performance.
To teach manding, the most direct procedure is to manipulate an establishing operation (“remove the toy”), and then reinforce the verbal response (“can I have the toy?”) with the specified consequence (guess what it is!).
To teach tacting, a speaker must emit a verbal operant whose form (what is said) is a function of a nonverbal discriminative stimulus; reinforcement is non-specific to that stimulus.
A child comes home from preschool and when seeing her mother the child says, “Let me tell you what I learned today…” and the child names several parts of the body and points to where they are. These would be tacts that would likely be reinforced by praise and hugs from the proud parent. (Mother may need to PROMPT that tacting by the child “What did you do in school today?”)
An intraverbal is a verbal operant (what the listener says) controlled by a verbal discriminative stimulus (what the speaker says) but there is no one-to-one relation between the intraverbal and its SD.
If you overhear me saying. “I’ll be damned!” to which you covertly reply “ I sure hope so…” your response is an intraverbal
Teaching a child ABCs: You say “ABCDEFG” and the child says “HIJK-ellamennopee”
“Free association” therapy demonstrates this when the therapist says “Mother” and you say “dominatrix” (haha!)
An echoic is a verbal operant in response to a verbal SD but with a point-to-point correspondence between the SD and operant. If you swear after hitting your thumb with a hammer (“Damn!”) and your four year-old-son subsequently repeats your expletive, his response is an echoic.
Reflexivity (also referred to as identity matching or matching to sample); a picture of Bin Laden is matched up with an identical picture of Bin Laden. (A=A)
Symmetry: stimulus A is interchangeable with stimulus B, or A=B and B=A; a picture of Bin Laden is matched up with the phrase “head of Al Queida” and vice versa.
Transitivity consists of showing that stimulus A = B and stimulus B=C and if the learner responds to A as interchangeable or equivalent to C then transitivity is in effect between A, B and C. If stimulus A (a picture of Bin Laden) is equivalent to stimulus B, “head of Al Queida” and B is equivalent to written words OSAMA BIN LADEN as stimulus C; if the picture of Bin Laden (stimulus A) is matched up with the written words OSAMA BIN LADEN (stimulus C) then transitivity is shown.