Career development and counselling theories
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COURSE 111. Career Development and Counselling Theories. Employment Counselling Services Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour. NEW BRUNSWICK. Training Program. Learning objectives and competencies.

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Career development and counselling theories

COURSE 111

Career Development and Counselling Theories

Employment Counselling Services Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour

NEW BRUNSWICK


Training program

Training Program

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Learning objectives and competencies

Learning objectives and competencies

  • Relate models of personal development to models of career development; (C3.1.1)

  • Describe the main models and theories of counselling and career development; (C3.1.2; S3.1.1)

  • Name the main models of career change and transition; (S3.1.3)

  • Explain the main components of career development; (C3.1.5)

  • Identify the repercussions of social roles on career development; (C3.1.4)

  • Define a personal intervention approach, taking into account recognized theories and models in the practice of employment counselling and career development; (S3.2.1)

  • Develop a continuous learning plan describing the activities to be undertaken to continue their professional development

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Experience without theory is blind but theory without experience is mere intellectual play

“Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play.”

Emmanuel Kant

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Career development points to remember

Career Development:Points to Remember

  • The development of individual identity is influenced by many factors

  • Each individual is unique and develops within a particular social context

  • Individuals are multi-potentialed and can work in many different areas

  • Each individual plays many roles throughout life

  • The individual evolves in a world which is also constantly changing and evolving

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Overview of the theories

Overview of the theories

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Overview of the theories cont d

Overview of the theories… cont’d

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Overview of the theories cont d1

Overview of the theories… cont’d

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Our itinerary for the next few days

Our itinerary for the next few days…

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Definition of counselling

Definition of counselling

Counselling is a way of entering into a relationship based on established principles and special knowledge in order to facilitate self-knowledge, acceptance and emotional growth and optimal development of personal resources. The final objective is to give the individual the opportunity to evolve toward a more satisfying way of life by increasing his or her own resources.

British Association for Counselling

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Definition of counselling cont d

Definition of counselling… cont’d

Counselling, a form of psychological and social coaching, designates a situation where two persons enter into a relationship in which one explicitly calls on the other by expressing a request that the other will deal with, resolve or assume one or more of the problems that concern him.

Catherine Tourette-Turgis in “Le counselling”,

Paris, PUF, 1996, collection Que sais-je?

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Definition of counselling cont d1

Definition of counselling… cont’d

More specifically, in their book Essential Elements of Career Counselling, Amundson, Harris-Bowlsbey and Niles (2005, p.6) describe career counselling as a process by which a counsellor works in collaboration with a client/student to clarify, specify and implement his or her career-related decisions and to adjust them as needed. Career counselling also takes into account the interaction of different roles in life with work.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Definition of counselling cont d2

Definition of counselling… cont’d

The central goal of career counselling is to help individuals make congruent work or career choices that will allow them to have a job, a career and a satisfactory life in a changing society.

Brown, S.D. and Ryan Krane, N.E., 2000

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Theories of counselling

Theories of counselling

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Alfred adler

Alfred Adler

Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority

  • A feeling of inferiority is “natural” for a child

  • This feeling disappears with the development of the personality if the need for self-affirmation is satisfied

  • If not, the feeling of inferiority becomes problematic and may crystallize into an “inferiority complex”

  • We seek to compensate for any feelings of inferiority

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Alfred adler1

Alfred Adler

Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority…

  • The inferiority complex:

    • It is often unconscious and can lead to grandiose achievements or asocial behaviour

  • Compensation may be:

    • Intellectual over-development in contrast to

    • Physical under-development, or vice-versa

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Alfred adler2

Alfred Adler

Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority…

  • Inferiority may be:

    • Organic constitutional physical: accidental or congenital physical limitation

    • Conventional social: differences with respect to others (child who has red hair; wears glasses, etc.)

  • Inferiority pushes a person to engage in certain types of compensation

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Alfred adler3

Alfred Adler

Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority…

  • Examples

    • Physical inferiority: Johnny Weissmuller – Tarzan (1904-1984): scrawny child, became a champion swimmer

    • Conventional social inferiority: differences in race, culture, sex, age, occupation, etc.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Carl rogers

Carl Rogers

Person-centred approach

  • Fundamentally positive vision of humanity

  • Essential concepts for Rogers

    • Authenticity and congruence

    • Empathy

    • Unconditional acceptance of the client

    • Confidence in the client’s capacity

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Carl rogers1

Carl Rogers

Person-centred approach…

  • Notion of non-directiveness

    • The client has the right to choose his/her own vital goals

    • “The client knows what is wrong, in which direction she/he needs to look, what the crucial problems are and the experiences which have been deeply repressed.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Albert ellis

Albert Ellis

Rational-emotive approach

  • Epictetus – Ellis’ inspiration

    • “What troubles men is not things but their judgement of these things”

    • “Death isn’t frightening, just our idea of death”

  • Irrational beliefs

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Albert ellis1

Albert Ellis

Rational-emotive approach…

  • Examples of Irrational Ideas:

    • To be happy, I need to receive love and approval from almost everyone around me for almost all of his present, past and future actions.

    • Everybody has to succeed perfectly in everything he undertakes.

    • It is useful and appropriate to blame yourself and/or to condemn others.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Albert ellis2

Albert Ellis

Rational-emotive approach…

  • People’s negative feelings are generated by their irrational beliefs about the different situations in which they find themselves.

  • The approach plays on two levels at once

    • Emotions

    • Reasons

    • Ideas are one of the causes of emotions in adults

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Albert ellis3

Albert Ellis

Rational-emotive approach…

  • The approach is aimed at

    • Recognizing emotions, accepting them and verbalizing them

    • Changing the cognitions (ideas) that are attached to them

    • Succeeds in acquiring behaviours that are more favourable to attaining one’s objectives and reduces the intensity, duration and frequency of disagreeable emotions.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


William glasser

William Glasser

Choice theory/Reality therapy

  • In reaction to the Stimulus-Response theory based on the erroneous idea that motivation is external to the person.

  • Replaces the Stimulus-Response theory by the choice theory, which says that… “Human are motivated intrinsically by the well-being that comes from satisfaction of their needs.”

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


William glasser1

William Glasser

Choice theory/Reality therapy…

  • Needs underlying all our behaviours

    • Survival

    • Belonging

    • Power

    • Liberty

    • Pleasure

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


William glasser2

William Glasser

Choice theory/Reality therapy

  • Any behaviour linked to satisfying my needs is chosen

  • The only behaviour over which I really have control is my own

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


William glasser3

William Glasser

Choice theory/Reality therapy

  • Reality therapy

    • Humans are responsible for their behaviours, not society, heredity or their past history

    • Humans can change and pursue a more satisfying life

    • Humans act intentionally in order to modify their environment to make it conform more closely to the image of their needs.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


William glasser4

William Glasser

Choice theory/Reality therapy…

  • Two components of the practice of reality therapy

    • Creation of a climate of trust

    • Use of specific techniques to

      • Help a person discover what she/he really wants

      • Reflect on what he/she is doing now

      • Formulate an action plan to more effectively satisfy needs in the future

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Lifeline

Negative experiences

Positive experiences

60 plus

55

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

05

10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02

Age

02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Lifeline…

  • Meaningful events or choices

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Theories of career development

Theories of career development

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Trait factor and person environment theories

Trait-factor and person-environment theories

  • Frank Parsons (1854-1908)

    • Father of career counselling

    • The theory unites

    • Traits: interests, values, aptitudes and personality characteristics

      with

    • A work environment which is congruent (a “good fit”) with those traits

      Parson, F. (1909). Choosing a Vocation.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Trait factor and person environment theories1

Trait-factor and person-environment theories

  • According to Parsons’ the choice of a vocation assumes self-knowledge and knowledge of occupations

  • No one can decide for someone else

  • A person can benefit from expert advice

  • The counsellor’s role is to give clients accurate feedback on their strengths and weaknesses

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Trait factor and person environment theories2

Trait-factor and person-environment theories

  • Three elements are central

    • Clear self-understanding

    • Knowledge of occupational requirements and conditions for success, the advantages and disadvantages, the compensation and future outlook for different types of work

    • A fair understanding of the relationship between these two types of facts – the application of reasoning to determine “fit” between person and occupation

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Person environment fit

Person-Environment Fit

  • John Holland (1919-2008)

    • Personality is a basic factor in career choice

    • Interest inventories are really personality inventories

    • People often have a stereotyped vision of trades

    • Different tasks require different workers

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Person environment fit1

Person-Environment Fit

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010

  • Typology describes persons, environments and their interactions

  • Different personality types look for work contexts or milieus than suit them

  • The six personality types correspond to six professional environments


Person environment fit2

Person-Environment Fit

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010

  • Six personality types (RIASEC)

    • Realistic

    • Investigative

    • Artistic

    • Social

    • Enterprising

    • Conventional


Lifelong career development

Lifelong Career Development

  • Donald Super (1910-1994)

    • Career development is:

      • A continuous process (childhood to old age)

      • Influenced by different situational (school, family, economy, etc.) and personal (needs, interests, values, etc.) factors

      • Composed of different roles (parent, spouse, worker, etc.)

      • Experienced across life cycles, each implying a transition period

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Lifelong career development1

Lifelong Career Development

  • Interests are the results of a learning process and have been developed through activities that have been successful because of the skills and aptitudes of the individual

  • Aptitude determines the distance an individual will cover whereas interest indicates the direction he will take

  • Self concept as well as the concept of oneself as a professional develop through learning experiences

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Lifelong career development2

Lifelong career development

  • The career rainbow

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Social learning

Social learning

  • John Krumboltz (1928- )

    • 4 categories of factors influence career development:

      • Genetic factors and special aptitudes

      • Environmental factors

      • Learning experiences

      • Competencies related to tasks

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Social learning1

Social learning

  • From these four types of influence stem two categories of generalization:

    • Generalization about oneself

    • Generalization about the environment

  • These generalizations have an influence on what an individual can learn and on his aspirations and actions.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Social learning2

Social learning

  • An incalculable number of learning experiences combine to shape each person’s career trajectory.

  • Based on these experiences, people adopt behaviours that lead them to undertake their career (concept of action).

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Socio dynamic counselling

Socio-dynamic counselling

  • Vance Peavy (1929-2002)

    • Socio-dynamic counselling is a method of planning one’s life. It includes the following three elements:

      • A perspective on contemporary post-industrial society and life and on the social construction of self in contemporary society

      • A philosophy of the helping relationship

      • A series of counselling practices based on the first two elements.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Socio dynamic counselling1

Socio-dynamic counselling

  • The concept of career seen as a vocation is replaced by that of life seen as a career.

  • Problem-solving is seen as a “tinkering” process using the models that are the most appropriate to the client’s needs and in which both the helped and the helper are considered to be experts.

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Socio dynamic counselling2

Socio-dynamic counselling

  • Socio-dynamic counselling does not look primary at changing people’s behaviour; it defines itself more as a process of “making sense”.

  • It’s goal is to mobilize intelligence and creativity to answer these two questions

    • How do I want to live my life?

    • What do I do now?

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Daisy theory

Daisy Theory

  • Part 1: (20 minutes) small groups

    • These groups are the same teams who were the trainer’s alter egos during the presentations of the theories in career development

      • Read the case

      • Share your understanding of the case

      • Plan the intervention

  • Part 2: (40 minutes) large group

    • Case study

      • Present the intervention plan by team

      • Identify the differences

  • Part 3: (10 minutes) feedback on the activity

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Transition and change

Transition and Change

  • Transition and change are closely related

  • Transition is associated with an event (losing a job) or a non event (not getting an expected promotion) leading to transformations

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Transition and change1

Transition and Change

  • Situational perspective: event regarding a situation

    • Change is external and visible

    • Transition is internal and defined as the psychological process allowing an individual to adapt to change

  • Developmental perspective: evolution of an individual during his/her life

    • Change is defined as a series of developmental cycles

    • Transition is defined as a boundary zone between two cycles

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Typology of life events that can trigger a transition

Typology of life events that can trigger a transition

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Transition and change2

Transition and change

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


William bridges

William Bridges

  • Process of transition

Current state

Desired state

Loss

Renewal

Disengagement

Disidentification

Disenchantment

Disorientation

Action

Neutrality

Introspective

reflection

(IMBALANCE)

Anxiety

Confusion

(NEW BALANCE)

RENEWAL

NEUTRAL

LOSSES

RENEWAL

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


James prochaska

James Prochaska

  • Stages of change

COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Knowledge acquisition consolidation exercise

  • Taking Charge: online self-evaluation

  • Evaluation of how the training went

    Thank you very much!


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