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LEARNING INTENTIONS. KNOWLEDGE: E xplain the structure of the ancien regime in France and how it was underpinned by inequality, chaos and absolutism. UNDERSTANDING: Analyse how the inequality, chaos and absolutism contributed to discontentment in the third estate SKILL:

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LEARNING INTENTIONS

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Learning intentions

LEARNING INTENTIONS

KNOWLEDGE:

  • Explain the structure of the ancien regime in France and how it was underpinned by inequality, chaos and absolutism.

    UNDERSTANDING:

  • Analyse how the inequality, chaos and absolutism contributed to discontentment in the third estate

    SKILL:

  • Analyse a visual cartoon in relation to the ancien regime in France by explaining the author’s message and evaluating its usefulness as a historical resource


The ancien regime

THE ANCIEN REGIME

  • The 3 Estates

  • Corporate Society – privilege

  • Absolute monarchy – divine right

    1781 STATUS QUO:

    INEQUALITY, CHAOTIC, ABSOLUTISM


Learning intentions

INEQUALITY

FRANCE – 1781

STATUS QUO

ABSOLUTISM

CHAOTIC


Inequality

INEQUALITY

  • The Clergy and nobility were mostly exempt from the Taille(land tax)

  • The Clergy paid only the don gratuit– voluntary gift to the King

  • Nobility exempt from many taxes except the vingtiemein times of war

  • Peasants/commoners paid tithes that contributed to the upkeep of the clergy – this took up on average 8% of income.

  • Peasants not only paid rent on land but provided up to 25% of produce to their lord – feudal dues

  • Commoners also paid capitation, indirect taxes on goods etc

SYSTEM OF TAXATION / FINANCIAL PRIVILEGES

Peter McPhee points out:

It was the rural population above all which underwrote the costs of the three pillars of authority and privilege in France: the Church, the nobility and monarchy. Together the two privileged orders and the monarchy exacted on average one-quarter to one-third of peasant produce, through taxes, seigneural dues and the tithe.


Inequality cont

INEQUALITY cont.

VENAL OFFICES

  • Sold by the State to raise money

  • In exchange for an annual tax (Paulette)

  • These offices provided access to power and opportunity to profit by the nobles who bought them

  • Through venality of office some bourgeoisie could hope for noble status

    In ancien regime France almost all posts of public responsibility had to be bought or inherited.


Chaotic

CHAOTIC

DIFFERING AND OVERLAPPING JURISDICTIONS

  • Areas of election

  • Areas of estates

  • Areas of imposition

  • 13 unequal legal zones

  • 18 different religious administrative zones

    Look at map on page 9 of your textbook to see these areas.

EFFECT: No single subject (person) in 18th century France could expect to have the same treatment as anybody else in administrative, religious or legal matters: it depended entirely upon where a person lived and which set of systems were in force there.

Look at map handout. What suggestions can you make that would improve the system? Who might not want the system to change?


Absolutism

ABSOLUTISM

DIVINE RIGHT / ABSOLUTE MONARCHY

  • King supreme Judge of the Kingdom

  • Lettres de cachet issued by the King

  • Parlements registered new laws – right of remonstrance

  • Lit de justice forcing his decrees to become law

    ‘The power to make the laws belongs only to me’ (Louis XVI)

    EXCEPTIONS??

  • Estates General - the only body by custom that had the power to authorise new taxes. Had not met since 1614.


Questions homework

QUESTIONS (homework?)

Answer questions 1-3 page 18 ‘Spirit of Change’

The answers should form part of your formal notes.


Other factors exacerbation

OTHER FACTORS - EXACERBATION

  • Age of the King – 20 when he became absolute monarch

  • King’s documented indecisiveness – poor leadership

  • Perception of Marie Antoinette as ‘Madame Deficit’ and an outsider (Austrian)


To do

TO DO:

  • Paste IDIU (Identify, Distinguish, Infer, Usefulness) instruction sheet into your workbook

  • Complete question sheet in relation to the cartoon

  • Answer questions on next slide


Learning intentions

  • Can you identify the figures in the cartoon?

  • What message is being conveyed about the nature of French society during the ancien regime?


Challenges

CHALLENGES

What challenged the status quo of the ancien regime?

  • Financial

  • Fiscal

  • Political

CRISIS


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