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A ___________________________ solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or i - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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lattice point. A ___________________________ solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

lattice

point

A ___________________________ solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions.

An ____________________________solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A _____________________________________ is the basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid.

  • At lattice points:
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Ions

Unit cells in 3 dimensions

Unit Cell

objectives today
Objectives Today
  • Solids/Crystal Structures
  • Unit Cell
  • Cubic Unit Cells
  • Types of Solids
  • Lattice Energy from Born-Haber Cycle
  • Logger Pro Intro Lab
slide3

lattice

point

A crystalline solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions.

An amorphoussolid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A unit cell is the basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid.

  • At lattice points:
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Ions

Unit cells in 3 dimensions

Unit Cell

slide8

Shared by 2 unit cells

Shared by 8 unit cells

slide9

4 atoms/unit cell

2 atoms/unit cell

1 atom/unit cell

(8 x 1/8 + 6 x 1/2 = 4)

(8 x 1/8 + 1 = 2)

(8 x 1/8 = 1)

slide11

d =

d =

m

m

V

V

x

=

x

1 mole Ag

107.9 g

7.17 x 10-22 g

6.022 x 1023 atoms

mole Ag

6.83 x 10-23 cm3

When silver crystallizes, it forms face-centered cubic cells. The unit cell edge length is 408.7 pm. Calculate the density of silver.

V = a3

= (408.7 pm)3 = __________________

___ atoms/unit cell in a face-centered cubic cell

m = 4 Ag atoms

= ___________

= ___________________

slide13

Extra distance =

2d sinq

= nl

BC + CD =

(Bragg Equation)

slide14

1 x 154 pm

=

2 x sin14.17

nl

2sinq

X rays of wavelength 0.154 nm are diffracted from a crystal at an angle of 14.170. Assuming that n = 1, what is the distance (in pm) between layers in the crystal?

nl = 2d sin q

n = 1

q = 14.170

l = 0.154 nm = 154 pm

= ____________

d =

slide15

Types of Solids

  • ________________ Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by cations and anions
  • Held together by electrostatic attraction
  • Hard, brittle, high melting point
  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

CsCl

ZnS

CaF2

slide16

Types of Solids

  • Ionic Crystals or Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by cations and anions
  • Held together by electrostatic attraction
  • Hard, brittle, high melting point
  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

CsCl

ZnS

CaF2

slide17

Types of Solids

  • Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by molecules
  • Held together by intermolecular forces
  • Soft, low melting point
  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity
slide18

Types of Solids

  • Molecular Crystals or Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by molecules
  • Held together by intermolecular forces
  • Soft, low melting point
  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity
slide19

carbon

atoms

Types of Solids

  • _________________ Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by atoms
  • Held together by covalent bonds
  • Hard, high melting point
  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

graphite

diamond

slide20

carbon

atoms

Types of Solids

  • Network or covalent Crystals or Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by atoms
  • Held together by covalent bonds
  • Hard, high melting point
  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

graphite

diamond

slide21

nucleus &

inner shell e-

mobile “sea”

of e-

Types of Solids

  • _________________ Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by metal atoms
  • Held together by metallic bond
  • Soft to hard, low to high melting point
  • Good conductor of heat and electricity

Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal

slide22

nucleus &

inner shell e-

mobile “sea”

of e-

Types of Solids

  • Metallic Crystals or Solids
  • Lattice points occupied by metal atoms
  • Held together by metallic bond
  • Soft to hard, low to high melting point
  • Good conductor of heat and electricity

Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal

slide23

Types of Crystals

Types of Crystals and General Properties

slide24

An ____________________________solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A _______ is an optically transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing

Non-crystalline

quartz glass

Crystalline

quartz (SiO2)

slide25

An amorphoussolid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A glass is an optically transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing

Non-crystalline

quartz glass

Crystalline

quartz (SiO2)

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