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An ____________________________ solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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lattice point. A ___________________________ solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions.

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An ____________________________ solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

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A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

lattice

point

A ___________________________ solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions.

An ____________________________solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A _____________________________________ is the basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid.

  • At lattice points:

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Ions

Unit cells in 3 dimensions

Unit Cell


Objectives today

Objectives Today

  • Solids/Crystal Structures

  • Unit Cell

  • Cubic Unit Cells

  • Types of Solids

  • Lattice Energy from Born-Haber Cycle

  • Logger Pro Intro Lab


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

lattice

point

A crystalline solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions.

An amorphoussolid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A unit cell is the basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid.

  • At lattice points:

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Ions

Unit cells in 3 dimensions

Unit Cell


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Shared by 2 unit cells

Shared by 8 unit cells


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

4 atoms/unit cell

2 atoms/unit cell

1 atom/unit cell

(8 x 1/8 + 6 x 1/2 = 4)

(8 x 1/8 + 1 = 2)

(8 x 1/8 = 1)


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

d =

d =

m

m

V

V

x

=

x

1 mole Ag

107.9 g

7.17 x 10-22 g

6.022 x 1023 atoms

mole Ag

6.83 x 10-23 cm3

When silver crystallizes, it forms face-centered cubic cells. The unit cell edge length is 408.7 pm. Calculate the density of silver.

V = a3

= (408.7 pm)3 = __________________

___ atoms/unit cell in a face-centered cubic cell

m = 4 Ag atoms

= ___________

= ___________________


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Extra distance =

2d sinq

= nl

BC + CD =

(Bragg Equation)


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

1 x 154 pm

=

2 x sin14.17

nl

2sinq

X rays of wavelength 0.154 nm are diffracted from a crystal at an angle of 14.170. Assuming that n = 1, what is the distance (in pm) between layers in the crystal?

nl = 2d sin q

n = 1

q = 14.170

l = 0.154 nm = 154 pm

= ____________

d =


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Types of Solids

  • ________________ Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by cations and anions

  • Held together by electrostatic attraction

  • Hard, brittle, high melting point

  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

CsCl

ZnS

CaF2


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Types of Solids

  • Ionic Crystals or Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by cations and anions

  • Held together by electrostatic attraction

  • Hard, brittle, high melting point

  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

CsCl

ZnS

CaF2


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Types of Solids

  • Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by molecules

  • Held together by intermolecular forces

  • Soft, low melting point

  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Types of Solids

  • Molecular Crystals or Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by molecules

  • Held together by intermolecular forces

  • Soft, low melting point

  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

carbon

atoms

Types of Solids

  • _________________ Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by atoms

  • Held together by covalent bonds

  • Hard, high melting point

  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

graphite

diamond


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

carbon

atoms

Types of Solids

  • Network or covalent Crystals or Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by atoms

  • Held together by covalent bonds

  • Hard, high melting point

  • Poor conductor of heat and electricity

graphite

diamond


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

nucleus &

inner shell e-

mobile “sea”

of e-

Types of Solids

  • _________________ Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by metal atoms

  • Held together by metallic bond

  • Soft to hard, low to high melting point

  • Good conductor of heat and electricity

Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

nucleus &

inner shell e-

mobile “sea”

of e-

Types of Solids

  • Metallic Crystals or Solids

  • Lattice points occupied by metal atoms

  • Held together by metallic bond

  • Soft to hard, low to high melting point

  • Good conductor of heat and electricity

Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

Types of Crystals

Types of Crystals and General Properties


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

An ____________________________solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A _______ is an optically transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing

Non-crystalline

quartz glass

Crystalline

quartz (SiO2)


A solid possesses rigid and long range order in a crystalline solid atoms molecules or i

An amorphoussolid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order.

A glass is an optically transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing

Non-crystalline

quartz glass

Crystalline

quartz (SiO2)


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