Is a process of establishing the age of an object, such as a fossil or rock layer, by determining th...
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Is a process of establishing the age of an object, such as a fossil or rock layer, by determining the number of years that is exsisted. Absoulte dating. Radioactive Decay. Radioactive isotopes tend to break down into stable isotopes of other elements in a process Radioactive Decay

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Absoulte dating

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Absoulte dating

Is a process of establishing the age of an object, such as a fossil or rock layer, by determining the number of years that is exsisted

Absoulte dating


Radioactive decay

Radioactive Decay

  • Radioactive isotopes tend to break down into stable isotopes of other elements in a process RadioactiveDecay

  • Because radioactive decay occurs at a steady pace, scientists can use the relative amounts of stable and unstable isotopes present in an object to determine object’s age.


Radiometric dating

Radiometric Dating

  • Determining the absolute age of sample based on the ratio of parent material to daughter material

  • Half-Life is the time it takes for one-half of a radioactive sample to decay


Types of radiometric dating

Types of Radiometric Dating

  • Uranium-Lead Method

  • Potassium-Argon Method

  • Carbon-14 Method


Uranium potassium and carbon

Uranium,Potassium, and Carbon

  • Uranium-238 method is used for dating rocks back more than 10million years ago

  • Potassium -40 method is used to date rocks older than 100,000 year ago

  • Carbon-14 method is used mainly to date rocks that have lived within the last 50,000 years.


Fossilized organisms

Fossilized Organisms

  • Afossil is any naturally preserved evidence of life.


Materials that preserve evidence of life

Materials that preserve evidence of life

  • In Rock

  • Mineral Replacement

  • Permineralization is a process in which minerals fill in pore spaces of an organism’s tissues.

  • Petrification of an of organisms, occurs when the oraganisms tissues are completely replaced by minerals

  • Fossils in Amber(tree sap)

  • Mummification

  • When organisms die and dry out they are protected from bacteria because of the lack of water

  • Frozen Fossils

  • Fossils in Tar

  • One such place is the La Brea tar pits,in Los Angeles County, California. These tar pits were present 40,00o years ago


Other type of fossils

Other Type of Fossils

  • Trace fossil are any naturally preserved evidence of an animal’s activity

  • Coprolites are preserved feces, or dung from , from animals

  • Mold is a cavity in the ground or orckehere a plant or animal was buried.

  • Cast is an object created when sediment fills a mold and becomes rock


Using fossils as a door way to the past

Using Fossils as a Door Way to the Past

  • Environmental Changes

  • Ex. By studying coral-reef fossils and applying the principle of uniformitarianism, they have determined that Iowa was once covered by a shallow sea.

  • Species existence on Earth

  • We know that fish existed before amphibians because fish were found in a lower layer of rock. In the same way, we know that amphibians existed before reptiles


Using fossils to date rocks

Using Fossils to Date Rocks

  • Index fossils are fossils of organisms that lived during a relatively short, well-defined time span.

  • Ex. Tropites, a genus of ammonites, existed for only about 2o million years, which makes it a good index fossils.

  • Where geologists find them in a rock layer, they know that the rock layer is between 208 million and 230 million years ago


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