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VT. Vertrag, Vertrauen und Verbindlichkeit: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion. Barry Smith. Versprechen, Verbindlichkeit, Vertrag und Vertrauen: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion. Barry Smith http://ontologist.com. Die Ontologie der sozialen Interaktion.

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Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

Vertrag, Vertrauen und Verbindlichkeit: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion

Barry Smith


Versprechen verbindlichkeit vertrag und vertrauen die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

Versprechen, Verbindlichkeit, Vertrag und Vertrauen: menschlichen InteraktionDie Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion

Barry Smith

http://ontologist.com


Die ontologie der sozialen interaktion
Die Ontologie der sozialen Interaktion menschlichen Interaktion


Soziale relationen
Soziale Relationen menschlichen Interaktion

  • x stands in relation R to y

  • <x, y>  {<u, v>:

  • u stands in relation R to v}


Social glue
Social glue menschlichen Interaktion

  • Freundschaft

  • Gemeinschaft

  • Unternehmen ...


Quellen einer guten ontologie
Quellen einer guten Ontologie menschlichen Interaktion

  • Aristoteles

  • ...

  • Edmund Husserl

  • ´formale Ontologie´

  • (Logische Untersuchungen, 1913)


Adolf reinach
Adolf Reinach menschlichen Interaktion

  • Die apriorische Grundlagen des bürgerlichen Rechts – 1913

  • A study of the ontology of the promise and related social phenomena


Secondary literature
Secondary Literature: menschlichen Interaktion

  • K. Mulligan (ed.),

  • Speech Act and Sachverhalt: Reinach and the Foundations of Realist Phenomenology, 1987


Munich school of phenomenology
Munich School of Phenomenology menschlichen Interaktion

  • Adolf Reinach

  • Alexander Pfänder

  • Max Scheler

  • Roman Ingarden

  • Edith Stein

  • (… Karol Wojtyła)


Edith stein
Edith Stein menschlichen Interaktion

  • beatified by John Paul II in 1987


The munich school
The Munich School menschlichen Interaktion

  • applied the realist ontological method sketched by Husserl in the Logical Investigations to different material domains:

  • Reinach: Law

  • Ingarden: Art and Aesthetics

  • Stein: The State and the Individual

  • Scheler: The Germans and the English


Realism
Realism menschlichen Interaktion

  • Munich phenomenologists’ method of passive faithfulness to what is given in reality

  • with no attempt at reductionism

  • but seeking rather to apprehend each kind of entity on its own terms

  • and to apprehend the relations between them on their own terms


Speech acts
Speech Acts menschlichen Interaktion

  • Examples: requesting, questioning, answering, ordering, imparting information, promising, commanding, baptising

  • Social acts which “are performed in the very act of speaking”


Part of a general ontology of social interaction
Part of a “general ontology of social interaction” menschlichen Interaktion

  • Reinach employs a theory of ontological structure

  • Austin, on the other hand, is concerned to combat a view of language

  • (the view of Aristotle, Frege)


Most philosophers
Most philosophers menschlichen Interaktion

  • have dealt with the world as if it were structured by monocategorial relations

  • physicalist reductionism

  • mentalism/idealism


Austin the primary unit of philosophical analysis is linguistic
Austin: the primary unit of philosophical analysis is linguistic

  • Reinach: language, psychology, action (and ontological structure) (and law) all matter

  • Speech act theory (like economics) a transcategorial discipline


Reinach s typology of acts
Reinach’s typology of acts linguistic

  • spontaneous acts

  • = acts which consist in a subject’s bringing something about within his own psychic sphere,

  • as contrasted with passive experiences of feeling a pain or hearing a noise


Spontaneous acts and language
Spontaneous acts and language linguistic

  • internal = the act’s being brought to expression is non-essential

  • external = the act only exist in its being brought to expression


Self directability
Self-directability linguistic

  • self-directable vs. non-self-directable

  • self-directable: love, hate, fear

  • non-self-directable: commanding, requesting


Non self directable external spontaneous acts
Non-self-directable external spontaneous acts linguistic

  • can be IN NEED OF UPTAKE:

  • the issuer of a command must not merely utter the command in public;


Reinach
Reinach: linguistic

  • A command is neither a purely external action nor is it a purely inner experience, nor is it the announcing (kundgebende Ausserung) to another person of such an experience.


Social acts have an inner and an outer side
social acts have an inner and an outer side linguistic

  • ‘… a social act, as it is performed between persons, does not divide into an independent performance of an act and an accidental statement about it;

  • ‘it rather forms an inner unity of voluntary act and voluntary utterance.’


The parts of promises and other social acts
THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • The linguistic component

  • Reinach: The same words, ‘I want to do this for you’, can … function both as the expression of a promise and as the informative expression of an intention.


The parts of promises and other social acts1
THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • Reinach: all social acts presuppose specific types of internal experiences

  • -- relation of one-sided ontological dependence


The parts of promises and other social acts2
THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • Social Act Experience

  • informing conviction

  • asking a question uncertainty

  • requesting wish

  • commanding will

  • promising will

  • enactment will


The parts of promises and other social acts3
THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • Social Act Experience

  • informing state conviction

  • asking a question state uncertainty

  • requesting wish

  • commanding will

  • promising will

  • enactment will


The parts of promises and other social acts4
THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • Social Act Experience

  • informing state conviction

  • asking a question state uncertainty

  • requesting event wish

  • commanding event will

  • promising event will

  • enactment event? will


Content
CONTENT linguistic

  • Mental states and mental events can share the same content

  • Husserl: content vs. quality of an act

  • p

  • p!

  • p?


Reinach1
Reinach: linguistic

  • the intentional content of the underlying experience

  • the intentional content of the social act

  • the content of the action to be performed (in the case of promises, requests, commands …)


Some social acts depend on uptake
Some social acts depend on uptake linguistic

  • (contrast: envy, forgiveness)

  • social acts must be both

  • addressed to other people

  • and

  • registered by their addressees


Some social acts not other directed
Some social acts not other-directed linguistic

  • and thus not in need of uptake:

  • waiving a claim

  • enacting a law

  • I promise you that p

  • I ask you whether p

  • (3) I order you to F

  • (4) I hereby enact that p


Enactments
Enactments linguistic

  • BGB §1: “The ability of man to be a subject of rights begins with the completion of birth”

  • This is ‘not any sort of judgement’


Founding relations for social acts
FOUNDING RELATIONS FOR SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • Commands, marryings, baptisings

  • depend on

  • i. relations of authority

  • ii. appropriate attitudes (TRUST)

  • iii. appropriate environment

  • The simultaneous basis of the speech act


Successor states for social acts
SUCCESSOR STATES FOR SOCIAL ACTS linguistic

  • Assertion gives rise to CONVICTION

  • Promise gives rise to

  • CLAIM and OBLIGATION


The structure of social acts
The Structure of Social Acts linguistic

  • ‘Insofar as philosophy is ontology or the a priori theory of objects, it has to do with the analysis of all kinds of objects as such.’ (GS 172).


Parts of social acts tendencies
PARTS OF SOCIAL ACTS: Tendencies linguistic

  • Promising, commands, requests gives rise to a tendency to realization

  • Bodies have a tendency to fall when dropped

  • Genes have a tendency to be expressed in the form of proteins

  • Tendencies can be blocked …


The structure of the promise

the promise linguistic

The Structure of the Promise

promisee

promiser

relations of one-sided

dependence


The structure of the promise1

act of speaking linguistic

act of registering

content

The Structure of the Promise

promisee

promiser

three-sided mutual

dependence


The structure of the promise2

act of speaking linguistic

act of registering

promisee

promiser

content

The Structure of the Promise

two-sided mutual dependence

oblig-ation

claim


The structure of the promise3

act of speaking linguistic

act of registering

promisee

promiser

content F

The Structure of the Promise

action: do F

tendency towards realization

oblig-ation

claim


action: do F linguistic

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

The Background (Environment)


Modifications of social acts
Modifications of Social Acts linguistic

  • Sham promises

  • Lies as sham assertions (cf. a forged signature); rhetorical questions

  • Social acts performed in someone else’s name (representation, delegation)

  • Social acts with multiple addresses

  • Conditional social acts


Collective social acts
Collective social acts linguistic

  • Buying and selling

  • Bidding

  • Marketing

  • Dancing

  • Arguing


action: do F linguistic

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

sincere intention

The Background (Environment)


action: do F linguistic

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

The Background (Environment)


action: do F linguistic

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

The Background (Environment)


action: do F linguistic

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

The Background (Environment)


action: do F linguistic

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

The Background (Environment, External Memory)

TRUST


The ontology of claims and obligations endurants
The Ontology of Claims and Obligations (Endurants) linguistic

  • Debts

  • Offices, roles

  • Licenses

  • Prohibitions

  • Rights

  • Laws


Three sorts of history
Three sorts of history linguistic

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.


Three sorts of objects
Three sorts of objects linguistic

  • 1. Necessary Objects (intelligible; timeless) – e.g. the number 7 (Plato)

  • 2. Contingent Objects (knowable only through observation; historical; causal) – e.g. Bill Clinton (positivists)

  • 3. Objects of the third kind (intelligible, but have a starting point in time) – e.g. Karl Popper’s knighthood (Adolf Reinach, Roman Ingarden)


Three sorts of history1
Three sorts of history linguistic

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.


Three sorts of history2
Three sorts of history linguistic

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

The number 7

Bill Clinton

Clinton’s Presidency


A priori law vs positive law
A priori linguisticlaw vs. positive law

  • Positive law = historical modifications of a priori legal structures

  • A priori law: A promise gives rise to a claim and obligation

  • Positive law:

  • Signing a contract before witnesses counts as making a contract

  • Contracts signed by minors are not valid

  • Contracts not co-signed by a notary public are not valid


Apriorism
Apriorism linguistic

  • Reinach's a priori theory of law provides universal grammar of the (micro-)legal realm, or of human (micro-)institutions in general.

  • Austrian school of economics provides universal grammar of the micro-economic realm


Carl menger and the austrian school of economics
Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics linguistic

  • Austrian Economics = study of the necessary dependence relations amongst the various constituent parts of the economic domain

  • apriorism – these dependence relations are intelligible

  • An exchange depends upon an exchanger and an exchangee


Reinach2
Reinach: linguistic

  • Some institutional concepts arepurely conventional: endowment mortgage, junk bond derivatives trader, football team-manager

  • But not all of them can be

  • Consider the concept of convention


Reinach3
Reinach: linguistic

  • Basic institutional concepts: convention, ownership, obligation, uptake, agreement, sincerity,

  • breaking a rule, authority, consent, jurisdiction

  • … the basic structural building-blocks of social reality


The basic structures of social reality
The Basic Structures of Social Reality linguistic

  • Propositions about basic institutional concepts,

  • e.g.: an acknowledgement is different from an obligation

  • cannot be true purely as a matter of convention

  • For the very formulation and adoption of conventions presupposes concepts of the given sort.


The bonds
The bonds linguistic

  • established by Reinach’s proto-structures of promise, claim and obligation …

  • can normally arise only within miniature civil societies,

  • within which special sorts of environmental conditions are satisfied (TRUST)


How can we do justice ontologically to the fact of social complexity
How can we do justice ontologically to the fact of social complexity?

  • How do separate persons, such as you and me, become joined together into transcategorial social wholes of such diverse types -- committees, teams, battalions, meetings, conversations, football games, wars, treaty negotiations, philosophical arguments?


Answer
Answer: complexity?

  • Written contracts

  • and other systems of records and representations of economically relevant human relations


Hernando de soto
Hernando De Soto complexity?


The mystery of capital
The Mystery of Capital complexity?

Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West

and Fails Everywhere Else

(Basic Books, 2000)

Freiheit für das Kapital. Warum der Kapitalismus nicht weltweit funktioniert


The mystery of capital1
The Mystery of Capital complexity?

It is the ‘invisible infrastructure of asset management’ upon which the astonishing fecundity of Western capitalism rests


This invisible infrastructure
This invisible infrastructure complexity?

consists precisely of representations, of property records and titles

These capture what is economically meaningful about the corresponding assets

“The formal property system that breaks down assets into capital is extremely difficult to visualize”


Capital is born by representing in writing
Capital is born by representing in writing complexity?

– ina title, a security, a contract, and other such records—the most economically and socially useful qualities [of a given asset].

“The moment you focus your attention on the title of a house, for example, and not on the house itself, you have automatically stepped from the material world into the [non-pnysical] universe where capital lives.”


The mystery of capital2
The Mystery of Capital complexity?

  • we pool and collateralize assets

  • we securitize loans

  • we consolidate debt

  • shareholders can buy and sell their property rights in a factory without affecting the integrity of the physical asset


The mathematical divisibility of capital
The mathematical divisibility of capital complexity?

  • means that capital is no longer the privilege of the few


What serves as security in credit transactions
What serves as security in credit transactions complexity?

is not physical dwellings, but rather the equity (Eigenkapital) that is associated therewith.

This equity is something abstract


Records and representations
Records and Representations complexity?

  • bring a new domain of reality into existence

  • – and this can have positive effects on the lives of human beings

  • Compare: the institution of credit-worthiness records, insurance


social action complexity?

documents, property records

fixed addresses

property recovery system

bill-delivery system

insurance

TRUST

The Background of


The west
The West complexity?

  • = a common system of enforceable formal property registrations, which made knowledge functional by depositing all the information and rules governing accumulated wealth and its potentialities into one knowledge base

  • AND MADE PEOPLE ACCOUNTABLE ACROSS THE ENTIRE PROPERTY JURISDICTION


Vertrag vertrauen verbindlichkeit versprechen
Vertrag, complexity?Vertrauen, Verbindlichkeit, Versprechen,

  • Versicherung

  • und

  • Verklagbarkeit


ENDE complexity?


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