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VT. Vertrag, Vertrauen und Verbindlichkeit: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion. Barry Smith. Versprechen, Verbindlichkeit, Vertrag und Vertrauen: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion. Barry Smith http://ontologist.com. Die Ontologie der sozialen Interaktion.

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Vertrag, Vertrauen und Verbindlichkeit: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion

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Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

VT


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

Vertrag, Vertrauen und Verbindlichkeit: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion

Barry Smith


Versprechen verbindlichkeit vertrag und vertrauen die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

Versprechen, Verbindlichkeit, Vertrag und Vertrauen: Die Ontologie der menschlichen Interaktion

Barry Smith

http://ontologist.com


Die ontologie der sozialen interaktion

Die Ontologie der sozialen Interaktion


Soziale relationen

Soziale Relationen

  • x stands in relation R to y

  • <x, y>  {<u, v>:

  • u stands in relation R to v}


Social glue

Social glue

  • Freundschaft

  • Gemeinschaft

  • Unternehmen ...


Quellen einer guten ontologie

Quellen einer guten Ontologie

  • Aristoteles

  • ...

  • Edmund Husserl

  • ´formale Ontologie´

  • (Logische Untersuchungen, 1913)


Adolf reinach

Adolf Reinach

  • Die apriorische Grundlagen des bürgerlichen Rechts – 1913

  • A study of the ontology of the promise and related social phenomena


Secondary literature

Secondary Literature:

  • K. Mulligan (ed.),

  • Speech Act and Sachverhalt: Reinach and the Foundations of Realist Phenomenology, 1987


Munich school of phenomenology

Munich School of Phenomenology

  • Adolf Reinach

  • Alexander Pfänder

  • Max Scheler

  • Roman Ingarden

  • Edith Stein

  • (… Karol Wojtyła)


Edith stein

Edith Stein

  • beatified by John Paul II in 1987


The munich school

The Munich School

  • applied the realist ontological method sketched by Husserl in the Logical Investigations to different material domains:

  • Reinach: Law

  • Ingarden: Art and Aesthetics

  • Stein: The State and the Individual

  • Scheler: The Germans and the English


Realism

Realism

  • Munich phenomenologists’ method of passive faithfulness to what is given in reality

  • with no attempt at reductionism

  • but seeking rather to apprehend each kind of entity on its own terms

  • and to apprehend the relations between them on their own terms


Speech acts

Speech Acts

  • Examples: requesting, questioning, answering, ordering, imparting information, promising, commanding, baptising

  • Social acts which “are performed in the very act of speaking”


Part of a general ontology of social interaction

Part of a “general ontology of social interaction”

  • Reinach employs a theory of ontological structure

  • Austin, on the other hand, is concerned to combat a view of language

  • (the view of Aristotle, Frege)


Most philosophers

Most philosophers

  • have dealt with the world as if it were structured by monocategorial relations

  • physicalist reductionism

  • mentalism/idealism


Austin the primary unit of philosophical analysis is linguistic

Austin: the primary unit of philosophical analysis is linguistic

  • Reinach: language, psychology, action (and ontological structure) (and law) all matter

  • Speech act theory (like economics) a transcategorial discipline


Reinach s typology of acts

Reinach’s typology of acts

  • spontaneous acts

  • = acts which consist in a subject’s bringing something about within his own psychic sphere,

  • as contrasted with passive experiences of feeling a pain or hearing a noise


Spontaneous acts and language

Spontaneous acts and language

  • internal = the act’s being brought to expression is non-essential

  • external = the act only exist in its being brought to expression


Self directability

Self-directability

  • self-directable vs. non-self-directable

  • self-directable: love, hate, fear

  • non-self-directable: commanding, requesting


Non self directable external spontaneous acts

Non-self-directable external spontaneous acts

  • can be IN NEED OF UPTAKE:

  • the issuer of a command must not merely utter the command in public;


Reinach

Reinach:

  • A command is neither a purely external action nor is it a purely inner experience, nor is it the announcing (kundgebende Ausserung) to another person of such an experience.


Social acts have an inner and an outer side

social acts have an inner and an outer side

  • ‘… a social act, as it is performed between persons, does not divide into an independent performance of an act and an accidental statement about it;

  • ‘it rather forms an inner unity of voluntary act and voluntary utterance.’


The parts of promises and other social acts

THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS

  • The linguistic component

  • Reinach: The same words, ‘I want to do this for you’, can … function both as the expression of a promise and as the informative expression of an intention.


The parts of promises and other social acts1

THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS

  • Reinach: all social acts presuppose specific types of internal experiences

  • -- relation of one-sided ontological dependence


The parts of promises and other social acts2

THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS

  • Social ActExperience

  • informingconviction

  • asking a questionuncertainty

  • requestingwish

  • commandingwill

  • promisingwill

  • enactmentwill


The parts of promises and other social acts3

THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS

  • Social ActExperience

  • informingstateconviction

  • asking a questionstateuncertainty

  • requestingwish

  • commandingwill

  • promisingwill

  • enactmentwill


The parts of promises and other social acts4

THE PARTS OF PROMISES AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTS

  • Social ActExperience

  • informingstateconviction

  • asking a questionstateuncertainty

  • requestingeventwish

  • commandingeventwill

  • promisingeventwill

  • enactmentevent?will


Content

CONTENT

  • Mental states and mental events can share the same content

  • Husserl: content vs. quality of an act

  • p

  • p!

  • p?


Reinach1

Reinach:

  • the intentional content of the underlying experience

  • the intentional content of the social act

  • the content of the action to be performed (in the case of promises, requests, commands …)


Some social acts depend on uptake

Some social acts depend on uptake

  • (contrast: envy, forgiveness)

  • social acts must be both

  • addressed to other people

  • and

  • registered by their addressees


Some social acts not other directed

Some social acts not other-directed

  • and thus not in need of uptake:

  • waiving a claim

  • enacting a law

  • I promise you that p

  • I ask you whether p

  • (3) I order you to F

  • (4) I hereby enact that p


Enactments

Enactments

  • BGB §1: “The ability of man to be a subject of rights begins with the completion of birth”

  • This is ‘not any sort of judgement’


Founding relations for social acts

FOUNDING RELATIONS FOR SOCIAL ACTS

  • Commands, marryings, baptisings

  • depend on

  • i. relations of authority

  • ii. appropriate attitudes (TRUST)

  • iii. appropriate environment

  • The simultaneous basis of the speech act


Successor states for social acts

SUCCESSOR STATES FOR SOCIAL ACTS

  • Assertion gives rise to CONVICTION

  • Promise gives rise to

  • CLAIM and OBLIGATION


The structure of social acts

The Structure of Social Acts

  • ‘Insofar as philosophy is ontology or the a priori theory of objects, it has to do with the analysis of all kinds of objects as such.’ (GS 172).


Parts of social acts tendencies

PARTS OF SOCIAL ACTS: Tendencies

  • Promising, commands, requests gives rise to a tendency to realization

  • Bodies have a tendency to fall when dropped

  • Genes have a tendency to be expressed in the form of proteins

  • Tendencies can be blocked …


The structure of the promise

the promise

The Structure of the Promise

promisee

promiser

relations of one-sided

dependence


The structure of the promise1

act of speaking

act of registering

content

The Structure of the Promise

promisee

promiser

three-sided mutual

dependence


The structure of the promise2

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

content

The Structure of the Promise

two-sided mutual dependence

oblig-ation

claim


The structure of the promise3

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

content F

The Structure of the Promise

action: do F

tendency towards realization

oblig-ation

claim


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

action: do F

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

The Background (Environment)


Modifications of social acts

Modifications of Social Acts

  • Sham promises

  • Lies as sham assertions (cf. a forged signature); rhetorical questions

  • Social acts performed in someone else’s name (representation, delegation)

  • Social acts with multiple addresses

  • Conditional social acts


Collective social acts

Collective social acts

  • Buying and selling

  • Bidding

  • Marketing

  • Dancing

  • Arguing


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

action: do F

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

sincere intention

The Background (Environment)


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

action: do F

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

The Background (Environment)


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

action: do F

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

The Background (Environment)


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

action: do F

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

How modific-ations occur

The Background (Environment)


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

action: do F

act of speaking

act of registering

promisee

promiser

sincere intention

content F

oblig-ation

claim

The Background (Environment, External Memory)

TRUST


The ontology of claims and obligations endurants

The Ontology of Claims and Obligations (Endurants)

  • Debts

  • Offices, roles

  • Licenses

  • Prohibitions

  • Rights

  • Laws


Three sorts of history

Three sorts of history

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.


Three sorts of objects

Three sorts of objects

  • 1. Necessary Objects (intelligible; timeless) – e.g. the number 7 (Plato)

  • 2. Contingent Objects (knowable only through observation; historical; causal) – e.g. Bill Clinton (positivists)

  • 3. Objects of the third kind (intelligible, but have a starting point in time) – e.g. Karl Popper’s knighthood (Adolf Reinach, Roman Ingarden)


Three sorts of history1

Three sorts of history

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.


Three sorts of history2

Three sorts of history

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

The number 7

Bill Clinton

Clinton’s Presidency


A priori law vs positive law

A priori law vs. positive law

  • Positive law = historical modifications of a priori legal structures

  • A priori law: A promise gives rise to a claim and obligation

  • Positive law:

  • Signing a contract before witnesses counts as making a contract

  • Contracts signed by minors are not valid

  • Contracts not co-signed by a notary public are not valid


Apriorism

Apriorism

  • Reinach's a priori theory of law provides universal grammar of the (micro-)legal realm, or of human (micro-)institutions in general.

  • Austrian school of economics provides universal grammar of the micro-economic realm


Carl menger and the austrian school of economics

Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics

  • Austrian Economics = study of the necessary dependence relations amongst the various constituent parts of the economic domain

  • apriorism – these dependence relations are intelligible

  • An exchange depends upon an exchanger and an exchangee


Reinach2

Reinach:

  • Some institutional concepts arepurely conventional: endowment mortgage, junk bond derivatives trader, football team-manager

  • But not all of them can be

  • Consider the concept of convention


Reinach3

Reinach:

  • Basic institutional concepts: convention, ownership, obligation, uptake, agreement, sincerity,

  • breaking a rule, authority, consent, jurisdiction

  • … the basic structural building-blocks of social reality


The basic structures of social reality

The Basic Structures of Social Reality

  • Propositions about basic institutional concepts,

  • e.g.: an acknowledgement is different from an obligation

  • cannot be true purely as a matter of convention

  • For the very formulation and adoption of conventions presupposes concepts of the given sort.


The bonds

The bonds

  • established by Reinach’s proto-structures of promise, claim and obligation …

  • can normally arise only within miniature civil societies,

  • within which special sorts of environmental conditions are satisfied (TRUST)


How can we do justice ontologically to the fact of social complexity

How can we do justice ontologically to the fact of social complexity?

  • How do separate persons, such as you and me, become joined together into transcategorial social wholes of such diverse types -- committees, teams, battalions, meetings, conversations, football games, wars, treaty negotiations, philosophical arguments?


Answer

Answer:

  • Written contracts

  • and other systems of records and representations of economically relevant human relations


Hernando de soto

Hernando De Soto


The mystery of capital

The Mystery of Capital

Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West

and Fails Everywhere Else

(Basic Books, 2000)

Freiheit für das Kapital. Warum der Kapitalismus nicht weltweit funktioniert


The mystery of capital1

The Mystery of Capital

It is the ‘invisible infrastructure of asset management’ upon which the astonishing fecundity of Western capitalism rests


This invisible infrastructure

This invisible infrastructure

consists precisely of representations, of property records and titles

These capture what is economically meaningful about the corresponding assets

“The formal property system that breaks down assets into capital is extremely difficult to visualize”


Capital is born by representing in writing

Capital is born by representing in writing

– ina title, a security, a contract, and other such records—the most economically and socially useful qualities [of a given asset].

“The moment you focus your attention on the title of a house, for example, and not on the house itself, you have automatically stepped from the material world into the [non-pnysical] universe where capital lives.”


The mystery of capital2

The Mystery of Capital

  • we pool and collateralize assets

  • we securitize loans

  • we consolidate debt

  • shareholders can buy and sell their property rights in a factory without affecting the integrity of the physical asset


The mathematical divisibility of capital

The mathematical divisibility of capital

  • means that capital is no longer the privilege of the few


What serves as security in credit transactions

What serves as security in credit transactions

is not physical dwellings, but rather the equity (Eigenkapital) that is associated therewith.

This equity is something abstract


Records and representations

Records and Representations

  • bring a new domain of reality into existence

  • – and this can have positive effects on the lives of human beings

  • Compare: the institution of credit-worthiness records, insurance


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

social action

documents, property records

fixed addresses

property recovery system

bill-delivery system

insurance

TRUST

The Background of


The west

The West

  • = a common system of enforceable formal property registrations, which made knowledge functional by depositing all the information and rules governing accumulated wealth and its potentialities into one knowledge base

  • AND MADE PEOPLE ACCOUNTABLE ACROSS THE ENTIRE PROPERTY JURISDICTION


Vertrag vertrauen verbindlichkeit versprechen

Vertrag, Vertrauen, Verbindlichkeit, Versprechen,

  • Versicherung

  • und

  • Verklagbarkeit


Vertrag vertrauen und verbindlichkeit die ontologie der menschlichen interaktion

ENDE


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