Computers in business and industry
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Computers in Business and Industry. Chapter 1. Introduction. Computer technology has changed every aspect of business and industry In the factory In retail sales and marketing In banking In the office Computers have also impacted the health and quality of life of individuals

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Computers in business and industry

Computers in Business and Industry

Chapter 1


Introduction

Introduction

Computer technology has changed every aspect of business and industry

In the factory

In retail sales and marketing

In banking

In the office

Computers have also impacted the health and quality of life of individuals

Technology will change the economy and employment in the future


Moving into the information age

Moving Into the Information Age

Humankind has experienced three major shifts relating to the world of work

The Agricultural Revolution

Farmers learned to produce crops more efficiently

The Industrial Revolution

Industries became more productive through automation, mechanization, and electricity

The Information Revolution

Businesses use information to provide core services or produce, process, and provide information as their main product


Computers in the factory

Computers In the Factory

Computer-aided design (CAD)

Uses a computer and special software to assist in product design

Computer-aided engineering (CAE)

Uses computers to test product designs

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

Uses computers to direct machines that produce and assemble a product

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Combines CAD, CAE, and CAM into one system


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BMW CAD System


Manufacturing resource planning mrp systems

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP) Systems

Job-scheduling system

Helps decide when to initiate production based on supplies and customer demand

Inventory control system

Tracks and matches current inventory supplies against anticipated future orders to ensure component availability

Just-in-time manufacturing

Lets manufacturers acquire components just before they are needed on the assembly line


Manufacturing resource planning mrp systems cont

Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP) Systems, cont.

Warehouse management system (WMS)

Tracks items received, generates pick lists, labels packages, tracks customer receipt


Industrial robots

Industrial Robots

Computer-controlled robots perform work that might be hazardous to people


Computers in retail sales and marketing

Computers In Retail Sales and Marketing

Point-of-sale (POS) systems record purchases, process credit or debit cards, and update inventory

A bar code scanner reads the bar code on a product with a laser beam

Bar codes consist of the manufacturer and item name

The computer retrieves the price and product information from the database

The inventory is updated

The output from POS can be used as input into other inventory, processing and accounting systems


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Bar Code Scanner


Payment processing and credit authorization

Payment Processing and Credit Authorization

POS connects to a payment-processing service to initiate credit card authorization

An acquirer approves or denies credit card requests


Inventory control systems

Inventory Control Systems

Obtains information directly from POS

Provides a real-time look at the availability of products

Alerts warehouse when reorder points are reached

Hand scanners update inventory when items are stocked

Inventory database can often be accessed by customers over the Web

Inventory is updated when customer reserves a product for pickup


Marketing and sales

Marketing and Sales

Database marketing allows companies to mine customer databases and create marketing lists

Customers can share preferences for future use

Companies determine user preferences based on past buying behavior

Consumers may receive spam from companies who share user information

Customer can opt-in to receive mail only when requested

Customer can opt-out to instruct the company not to share information


Computers in banking

Computers In Banking

Electronic funds transfer (EFT) allows users connected to a network to transfer money from one bank account to another

All electronic transactions use EFT

Automated teller machines (ATMs) are self-service banking machines

Connects to a bank’s database through a host processor, which routes the transaction

The user inputs a PIN number to verify the holder of the bankcard

Pin numbers are encrypted for security


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ATM Machines


Direct deposit and ach

Direct Deposit and ACH

Direct deposit transfer funds electronically to a bank in order for a company to deposit funds into a specified account

Eliminates paychecks for payer

Saves trips to the bank or ATM for payee

An automated clearing house (ACH) sorts automated payment instructions to transfer funds

ACH network acts as the central clearing facility for all EFT transactions


Smart credit cards

Smart Credit Cards

Stores data on an embedded microprocessor

Updates data instantaneously

Used for a wide range of applications

Originally used as stored value cards for pay phones

Used by train commuters in Tokyo

Can be contact or contactless

Contact cards connect metallic pads with the reader’s metallic pins

Contactless cards use a radio frequency to transfer information between the card and reader


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Smart Card Applications


Online banking

Online Banking

Brick-and-click businesses offer online banking in addition to services at a physical location

Cyberbanks offer products and services solely on the Internet

Online banks use sophisticated security technologies

A bill payment service allows customers to log on to a Web site and pay bills to vendors

Bill presentment is the process of sending bills electronically


Computers in the office

Computers In the Office

Technology is an integral part of today’s office

Computers, PDA, networked printers, fax machines, e-mail, cell phones

Documents are stored on disk instead of paper

Companies have corporate intranets to process online forms

PDF (Portable Document Format) files are used to preserve formatting across a variety of platforms in a network or on the Internet

Paper is still used for easier reading


Telecommuting

Telecommuting

A work arrangement in which employees work away from the office and communicate with the office using technology


Human factors and the workplace

Human Factors and the Workplace

Ergonomics aim to incorporate comfort, efficiency and safety into the design of items in the workplace

Use an adjustable height chair with 4 to 5 legs

A work area of 2 feet by feet is recommended

Set the monitor viewing distance to 18 to 28 inches

Avoid glare on the screen

Keep arms and wrists parallel to the floor

Place feet flat on floor or stable footrest

Center monitor and keyboard in front of you


Rsi and cvs

RSI and CVS

A repetitive stress injury (RSI) is caused when muscle groups complete the same repetitive actions over and over again

Keyboards and mice are major sources of RSIs

Symptoms include stiffness or burning of hands, loss of strength in hands, and pain in the upper back, shoulders, and back

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is caused by screen glare, improper lighting, and monitor settings hard on the eyes

Symptoms include eyestrain, dry or burning eyes, increased sensitivity to light, blurred vision, headache, and pain in the shoulders, neck, or back


Employee monitoring

Employee Monitoring

Involves the use of computers to observe, record, and review an employee’s use of a computer

E-mail messages inside and outside the company

Web sites visited by employee

Time spent away from the computer

Keystrokes performed per hour

Employee monitoring is legal

Employers use monitoring to ensure network security and manage productivity


Skilling and de skilling

Skilling and De-skilling

Skilling side of the debate

Technology increases the skill of some workers by allowing them to learn and utilize constantly changing technology

De-skilling side of the debate

Technology results in the de-skilling of workers due to automation that creates highly rigid jobs with narrow scope

De-skilling fragments tasks to the point where the worker loses sight of the larger purpose of the job


Worker autonomy

Worker Autonomy

Freedom of workers to contribute to the overall goals of a company, as well as their own goals

Technology has both increased and decreased worker autonomy

Factory workers can make production decisions with sophisticated technology on the factory floor

Production-scheduling systems can standardize activities and control worker tasks rigidly

Workers have access to database information to better complete their tasks

Customer service is often outsourced to telecommuters


Blurred boundaries

Blurred Boundaries

Technology makes it difficult for people to separate work and home life


Employment and unemployment

Employment and Unemployment

Technological change has displaced workers

U.S. Department of Labor projects that 8 out of the 10 fastest growing jobs between now and 2010 will be computer related

Wages will continue to fall for those not working in technology-rich jobs

Under-skilled workers are forced to accept underpaid jobs

The gap between those with access to computers and those without is referred to as the digital divide


Conclusion

Conclusion

Technological change is a key part of progress in any society

Agricultural, Industrial, and Information Revolutions

Computers are used in every facet of business and industry today

Factory, retail sales and marketing, banking, and offices

Technology impacts the quality of life in positive and negative ways

Health, autonomy, boundaries

Technology changes existing and emerging jobs


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