Social influence
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Social Influence. Reference Group. A set of people Whom individuals compare themselves to Guiding attitudes, knowledge and /or behavior. Types of Reference Groups. Associative Aspirational Dissociative Marketers Identify and appropriately represent target consumers

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Reference group
Reference Group

  • A set of people

  • Whom individuals compare themselves to

  • Guiding attitudes, knowledge and /or behavior


Types of reference groups
Types of Reference Groups

  • Associative

  • Aspirational

  • Dissociative

  • Marketers

    • Identify and appropriately represent target consumers

    • Associate product with aspirational group


Aspects of reference groups
Aspects of Reference Groups

  • Degree of contact

    • Primary

    • Secondary

  • Formality

    • Structure

    • Ad hoc


Aspects of reference groups 2
Aspects of Reference Groups 2

  • Homophily

    • Similarity

  • Density

    • Know each other

  • Individual characteristics

    • Degree of identification

    • Tie-strength


Aspects of reference groups marketing implications
Aspects of Reference GroupsMarketing Implications

  • Type of group to target

  • How to target a group

  • Target grop or individual

  • Weak ties

    • Serve as bridge between 2 groups


Consumer socialization
Consumer Socialization

  • Direct teaching

  • Observation

  • Reward / Punishment

  • Reference groups change over time


Sources of influence
Sources of Influence

  • Marketer / Mass Media

  • Marketer / Personal

  • Nonmarketer / Mass media

  • Nonmarketer / Personal


Characteristics of influence sources
Characteristics of Influence Sources

  • Reach

  • 2 way flow of communication

  • Credibility

    • WOM


Opinion leaders
Opinion Leaders

  • Info broker between mass media and a group

  • In one specific domain

  • Characteristics

    • A lot of product knowledge

    • Heavy users of media

    • Buy new products

    • Credible no vested interest


Normative influences
Normative Influences

  • Social pressure to encourage compliance with others’ expectations

  • Norms

    • Collective decisions about what should be

  • Rewards and punishments


Normative influence process
Normative Influence Process

  • Conformity

    • Tendency to behave as group wishes

    • Varies by culture, or so we think

  • Brand choice congruence

    • Likelihood consumers will buy what others in their group buy


Normative influence process 2
Normative Influence Process 2

  • Compliance

  • Agreement

  • Reactance

  • Boomerang effect


Product characteristics and normative influence
Product Characteristics and Normative Influence

  • Reference groups influence

    • Whether we buy a product

    • What brand we buy

  • Public / private product?

  • Necessity / luxury


Consumer and normative influence
Consumer and Normative Influence

  • Susceptibility

    • Some consumers are more influenced by social pressure

  • Attention to social comparison info

    • Pay attention to what others are doing

  • Strength of ties


The group and normative influence
The Group and Normative Influence

  • Coercive power

  • Cohesiveness / similarity

  • Group members are experts


Marketing strategy and normative influence
Marketing Strategy and Normative Influence

  • Foot-in-the-door technique

    • From small to large

  • Door-in-the-face technique

    • From large to small

  • Even-a-penny will help

    • charity

  • Norm of reciprocity

    • A dollar as a thanks


Symbolic consumption
Symbolic Consumption

  • Emblems

  • Role Acquisition

  • Connectedness

  • Expressiveness


Special possessions
Special Possessions

  • Mementos

  • Achievement

  • Collections

  • Ceremonial symbolic function


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions

  • Ned enjoyed being with his body piercing friends and he did so himself. Ping hated these people and hated body piercing. Explain the reference group relations in this example.

  • Can some reference groups have a greater impact than others? Why or why not?

  • How do marketers make use of norms to sell.

  • Do all possessions have a utilitarian use? Explain.


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