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Indian Nationalism vs. British Imperialism before World War II PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Indian Nationalism vs. British Imperialism before World War II. OUTLINE: Indian Nationalism Mahatma Gandhi Amritsar Massacre 1935 Gov’t of India Act. Indian Nationalism before WWII. Early 20 th c., people in India wanted independence from Great Britain b/c of exploitation by Brits.

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Indian Nationalism vs. British Imperialism before World War II

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Indian Nationalism vs. British Imperialism before World War II

OUTLINE:

  • Indian Nationalism

  • Mahatma Gandhi

  • Amritsar Massacre

  • 1935 Gov’t of India Act


Indian Nationalism before WWII

  • Early 20th c., people in India wanted independence from Great Britain b/c of exploitation by Brits.

  • 2 nationalist groups formed to fight for independence=

    • Muslim League (Muslim)

    • Indian Nat’l Congress (Hindu)

  • Religious difference were finally not as big as desire to kick GB out


Amritsar Massacre (spark that began Nat’l movement in India)

  • People were peacefully protesting in Punjab against the Rowlatt Act in 1919 (said GB could jail protesters for 2 yrs. w/o trial)

  • British military fired on unarmed crowd killing & wounding 100s

  • Hindu & Muslims throughout India began to demand independence forcefully


Mohandas K. Gandhi (“Mahatma”)

  • Political & spiritual leader of Indian nationalism —respected by Hindu & Muslim alike

  • Born in India, went to South Africa to practice law

  • Encountered major discrimination b/c he was not white (not black either…)

  • 1906—14 led protests in South Africa against discrimination and was jailed, beaten etc (but did not fight back)


Gandhi’s Way: Non-violent Resistance

  • Satyagraha = passive, non-violent resistance to un-just laws & ideas. Requires cooperation of many people

  • It is a means to achieve goals against great odds w/o resorting to losing “moral high ground”

  • Works b/c massive resistance of many can not be ignored


Satyagraha in India

  • Ppl followed Gandhi’s lead of

    non- violent civil disobedience to achieve ind. Led to:

    • Econ. probs for GB b/c ppl

      wouldn’t work or buy British goods

    • Pol. probs b/c of bad publicity (esp. during Gandhi’s hunger strikes)


Example: Salt March 1930

  • people stopped buying salt from GB & protested by walking to ocean to make their own salt

  • GB reacted violently to non-violence = more bad publicity


1935 Government of India Act

  • GB gave India limitedindependence b/c peaceful nationalism (& Gandhi) couldn’t be ignored.

  • Self-gov’t at local level but GB still controlled national gov’t

  • Created more division between Hindus & Muslims b/c they competed for control of local gov’t—differences began to be HUGE problems


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