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Ch 6 - Momentum. What is momentum?. Momentum = a vector quantity defined as the product of an object’s mass and velocity p = mv (momentum = mass x velocity) SI Unit = kgm/s (kilogram meter per second).

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What is momentum
What is momentum?

  • Momentum = a vector quantity defined as the product of an object’s mass and velocity

    • p = mv (momentum = mass x velocity)

  • SI Unit = kgm/s (kilogram meter per second)


  • A 2250 gram toy truck has a velocity of 4 m s to the east what is the momentum of the toy
    A 2250 gram toy truck has a velocity of 4 m/s to the east. What is the momentum of the toy?

    • M = 2250 g = 2.25 kg

    • V = 4 m/s

    • p = mv = 2.25 x 4 = 9 kgm/s east


    Momentum continued
    Momentum Continued… What is the momentum of the toy?

    • A change in momentum takes force and time

      • When a soccer ball is moving very fast, the player must exert a large force over a short time to change the ball’s momentum and quickly bring the ball to a stop


    Impulse momentum theorem
    Impulse – Momentum Theorem What is the momentum of the toy?

    • Impulse = for a constant external force, the product of the force and the time over which it acts on an object; OR, the change in momentum of an object

      FΔt = Δp = mvf – mvi

      Impulse = change in momentum =

      final momentum – initial momentum


    A 1400kg car moving westward with a velocity of 15 m/s collides with a utility pole and is brought to rest in 0.30s. Find the magnitude of the force exerted on the car during the collision.

    • M = 1400kg

    • Δt = 0.30s

    • Vi = 15 m/s west = -15 m/s

    • Vf = 0 m/s

    • F = ?


    6 2 conservation of momentum

    6.2 – Conservation of Momentum collides with a utility pole and is brought to rest in 0.30s. Find the magnitude of the force exerted on the car during the collision.


    Law of conservation of momentum
    Law of Conservation of Momentum collides with a utility pole and is brought to rest in 0.30s. Find the magnitude of the force exerted on the car during the collision.

    • The total momentum is conserved

      • That is, the total momentum at the beginning of the situation has to equal the total momentum at the end

    • This formula can be used in lots of different examples, like collisions, explosions, or when objects push away from each other.


    A 76kg boater, initially at rest in a stationary 45kg boat, steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?


    Momentum continued1
    Momentum Continued… steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    • The conservation of momentum fits with Newton’s Third Law

      • Every action has an equal but opposite reaction


    Real world vs physics world
    Real World vs. Physics World steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    • In real life, forces during collisions are not constant

    • In physics world, we will work as if we are using the “average force” in our calculations


    6 3 elastic and inelastic collisions

    6.3 – Elastic and Inelastic Collisions steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?


    Types of collisions
    Types of Collisions steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    • Perfectly Inelastic Collisions

      • Two objects collide and stick together, moving together as one mass

      • Momentum is Conserved

    NOTE: You will get the same results using the equation we already learned for conservation of momentum. This just reminds you that the masses stuck together!


    Speed of combined fish = 4 km/hr steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?


    Perfectly inelastic collisions cont
    Perfectly Inelastic Collisions, Cont. steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    • Kinetic Energy is NOT constant (conserved) in inelastic collisions

      • When the two objects stick together, some energy is lost

        • Deformation of objects (crunching of cars)

        • Sound

        • Heat

    Then compare the initial KE to the final KE to see how much energy was “lost”


    Type of collisions
    Type of Collisions steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    • Elastic Collisions

      • Two objects collide and then move separately

      • Both Momentum and Kinetic Energy are Conserved


    Real world vs physics world1
    Real World vs. Physics World steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    • In the real world, most collisions are neither elastic nor perfectly inelastic

    • In physics world, we act as if they fall into one of the two categories


    Review

    Perfectly Inelastic Collision steps out of the boat and onto the dock. If the boater moves out of the boat with a velocity of 2.5 m/s to the right, what is the final velocity of the boat?

    Stick together

    Momentum Conserved

    Kinetic Energy NOT Conserved

    Elastic Collision

    Bounce off

    Momentum Conserved

    Kinetic Energy Conserved

    Review


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