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U s history
U.S. History

  • Wednesday, Nov. 7

    • You will need a full sheet of paper to start notes for the Unit

      • Increasing Influences and Challenges

      • You will be using them for Daily Learning Target Assessments and then handing them in, so writing information down is important.


  • What do you think this means? Write down a definition.

  • Definition: The extension of a nation’s power over other lands.

  • Based on this definition, is the United States an imperialistic country in 2012? Explain.

The big picture
The Big Picture

  • U.S. foreign relations took a new turn at the end of the 19th century. Global competition for empire led the U.S. into war with Spain and intervention in Latin America. The U.S. forged a new role as an emerging world power.


  • What inspired imperialist activity?

  • How did the U.S. gain lands?

  • What caused the Spanish-American War?

  • How did actions within America push us into war?

  • How did the U.S. treat conquered or acquired lands?

I can
I can. . .

  • Evaluate, take, and defend positions on the various U.S. foreign policies in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries

  • Analyze the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War

  • Identify and evaluate the factors that influenced U.S. imperialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the ensuing debate over imperialism

What led to the u s quest
What led to the U.S. quest?

  • Economic Interests

    • Industrial Revolution

    • Close of the Frontier

  • Military Needs

    • Alfred Thayer Mahan

What led to the u s quest1
What led to the U.S. quest?

  • Example of European Nations

    • The scramble for territory

  • Ideology

    • American Nationalism

    • Josiah Strong’s Our Country

First acquisitions
First Acquisitions

  • Alaska

    • Purchased from Russia (1867)

      • Sec. of State William Seward

        • Reduce foreign possessions in NA

        • Vast natural resources

    • Statehood (1959)

    • Importance

      • Resources: timber, fur, fish, coal, oil, gold

      • Polar air routes

      • Close to Russia (air bases)

First acquisitions1
First Acquisitions

  • Hawaii

    • Acquired (Taken!)

      • Supply and fueling station

      • Drew missionaries

      • American investors

    • Statehood (1959)

    • Importance

      • Sugar and pineapples

      • Pearl Harbor

How it happened
How it happened

  • Wealthy white planters gained influence and power within Hawaiian society due to prosperous sugar sales to the U.S.

  • A group plots against the king and forces him to sign a new constitution in 1887 – the Bayonet Const. (Pearl Harbor ours)

  • 1890 – when the economy went south they try to restore control (U.S. ousts Liliuokalani in 1893; annexed in 1898)

The spanish american war

The Spanish-American War

An American Empire in the Making

Simmering unrest in cuba
Simmering Unrest in Cuba

  • Cuba was a Spanish possession

  • Since 1868 they had launched a series of revolts

  • Spain was weakening

  • Jose Marti

    • Exiled in NY, he forms the Cuban Revolutionary Party (1892) and leads a revolt in 1895

The butcher
The Butcher

  • Spain responds with ValerianoWeyler

    • Camps set up for civilians

      • Some 200,000 die

Why u s interest
Why U.S. interest?

  • Geographic proximity – 90 miles away

  • Economic interests - $100 mil. in trade; $50 mil. invested

  • Humanitarian concerns – deaths of especially women and children due to hunger and disease

The media s role
The Media’s Role

  • American’s were already sympathetic

    • American tradition of Revolution

    • Plus it gets a European nation out

  • But the “information” they received concerning Weyler fed it

  • Two competing media moguls are key

    • William Randolph Hearst – NY Journal

    • Joseph Pulitzer – NY World

Yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism

  • Scandalous stories and large shocking illustrations

  • Sensationalized news stories

  • They sent reporters, but relied on Cuban sources

The de lome letter
The de Lome Letter

  • President McKinley was openly criticized by Spain’s Minister to the U.S.

  • Cuban spy acquires it

  • Published in the NY Journal

  • In February

The explosion of the maine
The Explosion of the Maine

  • The U.S.S. Maine had been sent to Havana Harbor on a visit (protection; show of force)

  • Feb. 15, 1898 – the Maine mysteriously explodes: 260 killed

  • Yellow journalists go into high gear

  • But no declaration of war until April 25th

War in the philippines
War in the Philippines

  • The first action took place here because that is where the Spanish fleet was

  • Adm. George Dewey sent here by Asst. Sec. of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt

  • Dewey held his fire (nearest resupply was 7,000 miles away)

  • We had new steel-hulled and iron ships

  • Took only hours

War in cuba
War in Cuba

  • Teller Amendment – we will not take you over

  • U.S. military not prepared:

    • Wool uniforms

    • Bad beef

    • Hodge-podge of soldiers

War in cuba1
War in Cuba

  • Rough Riders – led by Teddy Roosevelt

  • Buffalo soldiers

  • Cavalry unit – not really; horses left in America or drowned

Consequences of the war
Consequences of the War

  • Treaty of Paris

    • Spain gives up claims to Cuba

    • Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to U.S.

    • Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million

  • It was a “Splendid Little War”

  • But cost $250 million and 2,000 lives (most from yellow fever)

Arguments for annexing the philippines
Arguments for Annexing the Philippines

  • Duty to spread values and culture

    • Christianize the Filipinos

  • Economic and strategic importance

    • Trade routes to China and the rest of the Asian markets

    • Get it before it falls to a European power

Opponent s views
Opponent’s Views

  • It’s a violation of our own Declaration of Independence (the idea of self government)

  • African Americans didn’t want to export oppression

  • It would open the door to new immigrants

  • It would undercut the American worker

American rule
American Rule

  • Annexation in 1899

  • Rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo

    • He had already set up a new government and proclaimed himself president

    • He was prepared to fight

American rule1
American Rule

  • The Insurrection

    • 3 years by U.S. accounts; until 1913 by the Filipinos

    • 4,000 U.S. deaths

    • 200,000+ Filipino deaths (about 20,000 military; the rest “as a result of the war and disease”) Some estimates as high as 1 mil.

    • They call it the Philippine-American War

American rule2
American Rule

  • Charges of brutality and torture on both sides

  • Many famous Americans were outspoken against this conflict

    • American Anti-Imperialist League formed

    • William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie