Module 4 6
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Module 4.6. List Potential Hazards; Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures (Task 6 / Principle 1). Objectives To emphasize the importance of hazard identification and analysis steps in food safety management

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List Potential Hazards; Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures (Task 6 / Principle 1)

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Module 4 6

Module 4.6

List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis;Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Objectives and contents

Objectives

To emphasize the importance of hazard identification and analysis steps in food safety management

To enable trainees to identify potential hazards in a process and to find appropriate control measures

Contents

Examples of hazards

Carrying out a hazard analysis

Control measures

Hazard assessment

Objectives and contents

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Importance of hazard analysis

An accurate analysis of hazards is necessary for an effective HACCP plan

Involves technical and scientific expertise in various domains

Hazard analysis must be reviewed when there is any change in

Raw materials

Formulation

Processing procedures

Packaging

Distribution

Use

Importance of hazard analysis

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Potential hazards

The first step in the development of a HACCP plan is the identification of all potential hazards

Biological, chemical and physical

At all stages from raw material to consumption

Potential hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Biological hazards

Biological hazards include

Bacteria and mould (spore-forming)

Bacteria (non-spore forming)

Viruses

Protozoa and parasites

Biological hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Biological hazards1

Commonly associated with humans and with raw products entering the food process

Most have the potential to increase spontaneously if control measures are inadequate

Usually killed or inactivated by heat processing

Fungi include moulds and yeasts

Some fungi are beneficial

Others produce toxic substances (mycotoxins)

Biological hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Chemical hazards

Chemical hazards include:

Naturally occurring chemicals

Added chemicals (intentional and unintentional)

Chemical contaminants may occur at levels that cause

Acute illness

Chronic illness

Chemical hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Physical hazards

Examples include

Glass, wood, stones, metal, plastic, etc

Hard or sharp foreign objects can cause injury

Poor practices at many points along the food chain can lead to the introduction of physical hazards

Physical hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Hazard analysis

Sources of information for hazard analysis include

Reference texts

Company complaints file

Scientific research and review papers

Epidemiological data

Web pages dealing with food safety issues

Hazard analysis

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Hazard analysis1

Objective

To determine which hazards need to be addressed under an effective HACCP plan

Overview of approach

Review incoming material

Evaluate processing operations

Observe actual operating practices

Take and analyse measurements

Hazard analysis

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Review incoming material

Review product description form (Form 1) for information that could influence the analysis of hazards

Is it ready-to-eat or is further processing envisaged?

Is it intended for a vulnerable group?

For each incoming material (Form 2) write ‘B, C or P’ directly on the form to indicate the nature of all potential hazards

Review incoming material

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Review of incoming raw material

There is wide variation in practices (on-farm and throughout the marketing chain) that can influence the analysis of hazards in incoming raw material

Review of incoming raw material

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Review incoming material1

Review incoming material

Potential hazards identified on Form 2 should be fully described on Forms 5, 6 and 7

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Incoming material biological hazards form 5

Incoming material –biological hazards (Form 5)

(For discussion only)

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Incoming material chemical hazards form 6

Incoming material –chemical hazards (Form 6)

(For discussion only)

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Incoming material physical hazards form 7

Incoming material –physical hazards (Form 7)

(For discussion only)

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Hazards in incoming materials

Sample questions that guide the identification of potential hazards

Could pathogenic organisms, toxins, chemicals or physical objects possibly be present on this material

Are preservatives or additives used in the formulation to kill or inhibit growth of organisms

Are any ingredients hazardous if used excessively or in adequate amounts

Do moisture content and Aw in final product or ingredients affect microbial growth?

Hazards in incoming materials

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Evaluating process operations

Objective

Identify all realistic potential hazards related to each processing operation, the product flow and employee traffic patterns

Review process flow diagram (Form 3) and plant schematic (Form 4)

Evaluating process operations

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Hazards associated with process steps

Assign a number to each processing step on Form 3

Examine each step and identify potential hazards (B, C, P)

Use plant schematic to assist in identification of potential hazards

Hazards associated with process steps

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Analysing process steps guiding questions

Could contaminants reach the product during this operation?

Could micro-organisms of concern multiply to the point where they constitute a hazard?

Analysing process steps – guiding questions

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Process steps form 5 biological hazards

Process steps – Form 5: biological hazards

Should be repeated for chemical and physical hazards

(For discussion only)

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Observe actual operating practices

HACCP team must be familiar with every detail of each operation

Observe operation long enough to be confident of usual practices

Observe employees

Be attentive of the possibility of cross contamination after a kill step

Identified hazards must be recorded on appropriate form

Observe actual operating practices

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Take measurements

Confirm actual processing conditions by taking measurements of important process parameters

Physical properties of the product as Aw, temperature, pH, moisture content

Residence time in processing steps

Dimensions, volumes

Storage conditions

Be sure of accuracy of measuring devices

Collect samples for microbial challenge studies if necessary

Take measurements

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Analyse measurements

Qualified individual must analyse and interpret data to determine impact or processing conditions on identified hazards

For example, plot Aw / moisture content / temperature against time as indicated by the circumstances

Compare Aw or pH values with ranges known to support microbial growth

Estimate and evaluate cooling or thawing rates and determine influence on bacterial growth

Evaluate shelf stability of the product

Analyse measurements

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Control measures

Control measures are any actions and activities that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level

More than one measure may be required to control a specific hazard and

More than one hazard may be controlled by a specified measure

Control measures

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Controlling biological hazards

Minimize contamination

Prevent or minimize growth and toxin production using heating/cooling, low Aw, low Eh, high acidity, biological processes (e.g. fermentation), preservatives, etc.

Pathogens risk is based on concentration, not just presence / absence

Beware of possible concerted activity of more than one organism together

Controlling biological hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Controlling chemical hazards

Source control involving raw material specifications and vendor certification

Proper segregation of non-food chemicals during storage and handling

Control of incidental contamination from chemicals

Formulation control and proper use of additives

Controlling chemical hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Controlling physical hazards

Source control – raw material specifications and vendor certification

Processing control – use of magnets, winnowers, screens, etc

Good maintenance of facilities and equipment

Controlling physical hazards

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Hazard assessment

Use information from hazard analysis to determine

Severity of the hazard(s):

Magnitude of consequences that result when a hazard exists (high, moderate, low, negligible)

Risk of hazard(s):

Probability of an adverse effect (high, moderate, low, negligible)

Hazard assessment

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Hazard assessment1

Use information from hazard analysis to determine

Which hazards should be addressed under HACCP plan

Hazards of a low probability of occurrence and a low severity should not be addressed in HACCP plan but through GMPs

The points or steps at which control could be applied to prevent eliminate or reduce hazards to an acceptable level (CCPs)

Hazard assessment

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Health risk assessment model

Likelihood of Occurrence

High

Ma

Cr

Sa

Mi

Sa

Mi

Ma

Ma

Medium

Sa

Mi

Mi

Mi

Low

Severity of Consequences

Sa

Sa

Sa

Sa

Negligible

Negligible

Low

Medium

High

Health risk assessment model

Key

  • Cr – critical

  • Ma - major

  • Mi – minor

  • Sa - satisfactory

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Ota contamination of coffee

A mycotoxin, Ochratoxin A (OTA), produced by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium

Aspergillus niger

Aspergillus carbonarius

Aspergillus ochraceus

Penicillium verrucosum

Control of mould growth from primary production to shipping in order to reduce the risk of OTA contamination

All steps in the process flow chart must be analysed to determine points where control should be exercised to eliminate hazards or control them within acceptable limits

OTA contamination of coffee

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Scientific support for haccp plan development

Comprehensive identification of potential hazards and sound evaluation of control measures requires availability of good data

‘Scientific support’ for HACCP-based safety management covers:

Mycology – ID of OTA-producers; investigation of conditions of mould growth and OTA- production

Evaluation of processing and handling technologies / equipment; moisture measurement devices

Scientific support forHACCP plan development

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


Summary

What are biological, chemical and physical hazards

Systematically identifying hazards

Control measures

Deciding which hazards are to be addressed under the HACCP plan

Next step: Determining the

critical control points in a process

Summary

Module 4.6 – List Potential Hazards;Conduct Hazard Analysis; Consider Control Measures(Task 6 / Principle 1)


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