Designing projects and programs methods and frameworks applied to orangi and gal oya
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Designing Projects and Programs: Methods and Frameworks (applied to Orangi and Gal Oya). Residency 2 Local to Global Sustainable Development. Techniques of Project Design (used when going local to global).

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Designing Projects and Programs: Methods and Frameworks (applied to Orangi and Gal Oya)

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Designing Projects and Programs: Methods and Frameworks(applied to Orangiand Gal Oya)

Residency 2

Local to Global Sustainable Development

Techniques of Project Design (used when going local to global)

Sustainable development is often about intervention for a positive difference. But how do you decide what to do?

  • Most typical: Focus on a project or program.

  • PARTICIPATORY and other qualitative appraisals –

    Locals gather information, not always “specialists”

    Need buy-in or purely information?

    (match methodology with kind of information needed, e.g. triangulation of methods/tools/participants for best quality and to

    eliminate/monitor bias and pre-conceived results)

    Credits: Catholic Relief Services RRA/PRA Manual, USAID, Africare, Pretty, J. (1995). Participatory Learning and Action. (London: IIED)

Info as a valuable commodity about:

  • Communities (social structures, safety nets)

  • Livelihoods (economic structures, basic needs)

  • Beliefs/cultural identities

  • Physical environments (resources, geography)

That enable projects to:

  • Customize to needs/circumstances

  • Focus questions for quantitative surveys to complement qualitative research;

  • Refine mid-stream;

  • Improve evaluations and follow-up

Key elements of participatory research

In the spectrum of methods…(respect for human dignity – individual, family, community)

More participatory

Less participatory

More quantitative More qualitative

Matrix: Problem ranking to determine solutions

A subsequent matrix would specify for each problem:


Person Responsible;

Date to be Completed, and

Materials Needed.

Example: PRA, Orangi

  • Mission: To improve health and sanitation conditions through construction of sewerage systems in joint effort with Orangi residents.

  • Vision: In __ years, __ percent of homes will have sanitary pour-flush lavatories connected to underground sewer lines, including collector drains and a treatment plant.

  • Strategy: Systems will be financed, constructed, and maintained by homeowners with no financial subsidies. OPP will provide motivation, training, organizational and technical engineering advice, and loan of tools and equipment at no cost.

  • Implementation: OPP will recruit and train social motivators to conduct a series of educational meetings with homeowners about project specifics – such as health benefits, technical standards of construction, costs, levels of service, benefits of ownership, as well as financial benefits. Only after homeowners agree and approve of the project will construction proceed. The resident groups will form organizations and select lane managers to request and coordinate social and technical guidance and supervision from OPP.

Logical Framework: Chain of logic after strategy is formulated

Log frames take more time but are worth it! Questions for focus:

What is the mission, which focuses on interests of org? Vision, which is the long-term picture of success? What is the strategy, which is a choice?

Managerial Takeaways

  • All tools have flaws; Log Frame/others may bias toward rigor at cost of realities

  • Participation may be reduced for “efficiency”

  • Empowerment as outputs: Self-reliance; capacity to advocate for outside support; attitude change; skills; and local organizations

  • “Participation” degrees: Consultative, Demo projects, Partnership, Active, and Fade-out

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