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Attention: From Confusion to Control. The Role of Attention in a Neuro-developmental Model of Assessment and Interventions. Agenda. Housekeeping Introduction of Rudolf Stockling Presentation Discussion. Introduction of Rudolf Stockling. EDUCATION / MEMBERSHIP MSc (Psych) Wollongong

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attention from confusion to control
Attention: From Confusion to Control

The Role of Attention in a

Neuro-developmental Model of Assessment and Interventions

agenda
Agenda
  • Housekeeping
  • Introduction of Rudolf Stockling
  • Presentation
  • Discussion
introduction of rudolf stockling
Introduction of Rudolf Stockling

EDUCATION / MEMBERSHIP

  • MSc (Psych) Wollongong
  • Member Australian Psychological Society (APS)
  • Registered Psychologist NSW Australia

EXPERIENCE

  • Secondary Teacher (4 Years)
  • Educational Psychologist (12 Years)
  • Psychologist in Private Practice (8 Years)
  • Director of Assessment Lexicon Reading Centre Dubai (at present), www.lexiconreadingcenter.org
attention control systems
Attention Control Systems
  • MENTAL ENERGY
  • PROCESSING
  • PRODUCTION
mental energy
MENTAL ENERGY
  • Alertness
  • Sleep and arousal balance
  • Mental effort
  • Performance consistency
a alertness
A. Alertness
  • Regulates the flow of energy
  • Prevents mental fatigue

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Difficulty finishing homework
  • Can’t sit still on car trips, at the table, etc.

In school:

  • Yawns
  • Fidgets
  • Contorts the body
b sleep and arousal balance
B. Sleep and arousal balance
  • Brain’s ability to promote sleep
  • Regulates appropriate alertness during day

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Resists going to bed
  • Cannot fall asleep at a regular time;
  • Hard time getting up in the morning

In school:

  • Does not really wake up until late morning;
  • Yawns,
  • Stretches
  • Tired during class
c mental effort
C. Mental effort
  • Supplies the energy required for a student to start, work on, and complete a task

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Requires heavy prodding to do homework or study for tests; have to “light a fire” under him to do chores

In school:

  • Late starting work
  • Puts off tasks that are particularly hard or unappealing
d performance consistency
D. Performance consistency
  • Ensures a steady, reliable flow of energy from moment to moment and day to day

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Energy level and interest in tasks are unpredictable

In school:

  • Inconsistent School work quality and amount
strategies mental energy
Strategies: Mental Energy
  • Praise attention efforts.
  • Encourage physical activity.
  • Give advance notice.
  • Break up studying time into chunks.
  • Recommend a bedtime routine.
  • Provide breaks with physical activity
strategies mental energy cont
Strategies: Mental Energy cont.
  • Help to get started on homework.
  • Identify high mental effort periods.
  • Monitor performance inconsistencies.
  • Use a dry-erase board to organize homework time.
processing controls
PROCESSING CONTROLS
  • Saliency determination
  • Depth and detail of processing
  • Cognitive activation
  • Focal maintenance
  • Satisfaction level
a saliency determination
A. Saliency determination
  • Selects important information for use and puts unimportant information aside

Look Out for:

At home

  • When given a list of chores, cannot distinguish which are more important than others
  • may have a hard time making a decision when presented with many options

In school

  • Distracted by sights, sounds, or events happening close- by;
  • Takes detailed notes, without prioritizing
b depth and detail of processing
B. Depth and detail of processing
  • Controls how deeply students concentrate on details in order to capture the information

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Has to be told directions or information several times before it “sinks in”

In school:

  • Misses critical details, like operational signs in math or punctuation in writing
c cognitive activation
C. Cognitive activation
  • Triggers prior knowledge and experience learning new information

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Unengaged and disconnected (cognitive underactivation) or
  • Bounce around seemingly random topics (overactivation)

In school:

  • Disengaged from classroom discussions or
  • Disrupts discussion with irrelevant ideas
d focal maintenance
D. Focal maintenance
  • Allows a student to focus for the right amount of time on important information

Look Out for:

At home

  • Jumps from activity to activity without finishing;
  • may overuse the TV remote

In school

  • Stops focusing in the middle of an activity;
  • Is not prepared when class begins a new subject
e satisfaction level
E. Satisfaction level
  • Controls how deeply students concentrate on details in order to capture the information

Look Out for:

At home

  • Only concentrates on things of interest
  • Exhibits an extreme hunger for material possessions (the “latest” thing)

In school

  • Disrupts other students when bored;
  • does not focus in class unless interested in the topic
strategies processing
Strategies: Processing
  • Teach scanning or skimming techniques
  • Draw focus to important information.
  • Provide a clear ruler to help your child keep her place while reading.
  • Use sub vocalization.
  • Connect new information to prior knowledge.
strategies processing cont
Strategies: Processing cont.
  • Make new information relevant.
  • Encourage eye contact and repetition.
  • Teach your child to prioritize.
  • Teach and model internal standards.
  • Use internal dialogue, or self-talk,
  • Reflect on successes.
  • Cue children to upcoming transitions .
production controls
PRODUCTION CONTROLS
  • Previewing
  • Facilitation and inhibition
  • Pacing
  • Self-monitoring
  • Reinforceability
a previewing
A. Previewing
  • Consider more than one action or response
  • Anticipate the outcome of a choice

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Trouble thinking through the possible consequences of her actions, even when prompted by parents

In school:

  • Does not use outlines to plan a paper or project
  • Difficulty estimating answers to math problems
  • Difficulty in predicting events in or endings to stories
b facilitation and inhibition
B. Facilitation and inhibition
  • Exercise restraint and not act immediately
  • Consider various options
  • Choose best response or strategy in a situation

Look Out for:

At home

  • Does the first thing that comes to mind without considering possibilities;
  • can’t resist temptation (e.g. sneaking treats before meal)

In school:

  • Blurts out responses in class discussion
  • Says whatever is on his mind
c pacing
C. Pacing
  • Adjusts the rate to complete a task;
  • Enables production at appropriate rate

Look Out for:

At home

  • Rushes through homework
  • Trouble allotting enough time

In school

  • Does poorly on timed tests
  • Still completing assignments when others are done
  • Finishes tasks far too quickly resulting in errors
d self monitoring
D. Self-monitoring
  • Allows to evaluate continuous performance
  • Allows to evaluate completion a task

Look Out for:

At home:

  • Does not check his work,
  • Leaving chores unfinished or poorly done

In school:

  • Trouble editing his own work;
  • Doesn’t “get it“ when behaviour is bothering others
e reinforceability
E. Reinforceability
  • Helps to respond or act on prior experience

Look Out for:

At home

  • Gets into trouble over the same problem despite past interventions or consequences

In school

  • Keeps making the same mistakes despite tutoring or re-teaching
  • Insensitive to punishment and reward
strategies production
Strategies: Production
  • Engage in “what if” exercises in various academic, behavioural, and social situations.
  • Build in planning time
  • Model planning techniques for your child by ‘thinking aloud’ while performing a task.
  • Use stepwise approaches.
strategies production cont
Strategies: Production cont.
  • Stress the importance of organization.
  • Encourage self-grading.
  • Provide consistent feedback.
  • Create a visual reminder to “hold that thought.”
  • Discuss the lesson or assignment.
strategies basics
Strategies: Basics
  • General Tips
  • Home, School and Clinic Collaboration
  • Involving Children
strategies general tips
Strategies: General Tips
  • Decide which strategies to try
  • Limit yourself to 1-3 strategies to try first.
  • If the first few strategies not improve the child\'s skills, try others.
  • Adapt strategies for use with your child’s age groups
home school and clinic collaboration
Home, School and Clinic Collaboration
  • Share observations about your child\'s strengths and weaknesses
  • Discuss where the breakdown is occurring
  • Share information on issues in other areas
  • Attention issues often masks other learning issues
home school and clinic collaboration contd
Home, School and Clinic Collaboration, contd
  • Identify your child\'s strengths and interests
  • Discuss possible strategies
  • Acknowledge your emotional reactions
  • Discuss appropriate next steps
involving children
Involving Children
  • Attention skills are important to succeed with school work, control behaviour and relate well to others.
  • Some children give up and see themselves as failures
  • Others exhibit behaviour problems related to attention.
involving children contd
Involving Children, contd

What to do:

  • Open non-judgemental discussion of learning profile
  • Explain that everyone has strengths and weaknesses.
  • Create a shared sense of optimism
  • Explain that learning problems can be managed
  • Work toward a common realistic goal
resources professional organizations
Resources:Professional Organizations
  • American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: http://www.aacap.org

Information and Pamphlets

  • American Academy of Pediatrics: http://www.aap.org

Information for parents of children from birth through age 21.

  • American Psychological Association:http://www.apa.org

The professional organization of psychologists in the USA

resources websites
Resources: Websites
  • All Kinds of Minds: http://www.allkindsofminds.org

Provides resources to help parents, educators, and clinicians

  • Learning Disabilities Association of America: http://ldaamerica.org

Provides information on understanding learning disabilities

  • National Center for Learning Disabilities: http://www.ncld.org

Information about learning, early literacy and learning resources

  • LD Online http://www.ldonline.org

Learning Disabilities and ADHD Information

  • CHADD http://www.chadd.org

Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

references
References
  • Brown, Thomas E. Attention Deficit Disorder: The Unfocused Mind in Children and Adults.: Yale University Press 2005
  • Levine, Melvin D. All Kinds of Minds. Cambridge, Mass.: Educators Publishing Service, 1997.
  • Website: www.allkindsofminds.org
  • Website:www.DrThomasEBrown.com
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