Basic workshop processes
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Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department. Basic Workshop Processes. Abdou Abdel- Samad Lecture No. (9) Turning. Outlines. Various Processes Cutting and Non-Cutting Processes Machining Operation with Machine Tools Care and Maintenance of Machine Tools

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Basic Workshop Processes

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Faculty of Engineering

Mechanical Engineering Department

Basic Workshop Processes

Abdou Abdel-Samad

Lecture No. (9)

Turning


Outlines

  • Various Processes

    • Cutting and Non-Cutting Processes

  • Machining Operation with Machine Tools

  • Care and Maintenance of Machine Tools

  • Economical Production

  • Turning Operations

  • Turning Processes

    • Longitudinal, Transversal, Angular (taper), Profile and Thread turning

  • Turning Machines (Lathes)

  • Main Parts of the Turning Lathe

    • Headstock, Main Spindle, Carriage, Tail Stock and Lathe Bed

  • Turning Tools

    • Angles of the cutting tool

    • Checking of Tool Angles

    • Plan, nose and inclination angles of the turning tool

  • Type of Cutting Tools

    • Roughing, Finishing, Side, Parting-off, Profile, Threading and Boring Tools

  • Maintenance of Turning Tools

  • Clamping of Cutting Tools

  • Setting of Cutting Tools


General objective

This lecture aims:

to identify the most important parts of a lathe and their functions.

to identify standard and quick change tool holders mounted on a lathe carriage.

to explain the purpose of the rake and relief angles, and form tools.

to explain the uses and care of independent and universal chucks.

to explain the use of a face plate and face driver or drive center.

to describe different types of tapers and the methods used to produce and measure them.

to explain the correct uses of steadies and followers.


عمليات تشكيل

السباكة

السحب

القص

الحدادة

الدرفلة


عمليات تشغيل

النشر

الخراطة

الثقب

الكشط

التفريز


Machining operation with machine tools


المخرطة(Lathe)


المثقاب

Radial Drilling Machine

Pillar Drilling Machine

Bench Drilling Machine


المكشطة النطاحة


الفريزة


Care and maintenance of machine tools


Safety 2

Safety 3

Safety 1

Care and maintenance of machine tools

  • Do not start a machine of which the operation is not known.

  • Oil all hand lubricating points daily.

  • Before starting, check whether all levers are in the proper position.

  • Protect the guideways from foreign materials.

  • Bearing must not be allowed to run more than normal working temperature.

  • The electric motor must be protected from dust and moisture.

  • Clean the machine frequently. Do not use compressed air.

  • Pay attention to the posters displayed for accident prevention.


Economical production

Economic manufacture means:

  • The workpieces must correspond to the demands regarding material, shape, accuracy to size and surface quality.

  • The manufacturing time must be as short as possible.

  • The cost of manufacture should be as low as possible, e.g. wear of tools and machines, consumption of raw materials and auxiliaries also power consumption should be very low.


Turning operations


Motions while turning

سرعة القطع

التغذية

عمق القطع


Turning processes


الخراطة الطولية

خارجية

داخلية


الخراطة الوجهية (المستعرضة)

خارجية

داخلية


خراطة المسلوب

خارجية

داخلية


خراطة التشكيل

خارجية

داخلية


خراطة اللولب

خارجية

داخلية


Turning machines (Lathes)


مخرطة الذنبة


Main parts of the turning lathe


Main parts of the turning lathe

  • فرش المخرطة

  • الغراب الثابت

  • الرسمة الطولية للعربة

  • الغراب المتحرك

  • صندوق تروس التغذية

  • عمود اللولب

  • عمود الجر

  • ذراع التشغيل


Speed levers

Headstock

(a) Main spindle (b) Engagement lever


Main spindle

  • With plain bearings

  • Main spindle

  • Head of the main spindle

  • Bearing bush

  • Ring nut

  • Thrust bearing

  • With roller & ball bearings

Taper roller bearing

Ball bearing

Roller bearing


Carriage

Saddle

Cross-slide

Compound-slide

Tool holder

Apron box


Tail Stock

Spindle

Sleeve

Hand wheel

Set-screw

Base

Clamping piece

Clamping lever


Lathe Bed


Turning tools


Turning tools

(a) Tool steel or high speed steel

(b) Butt-welded high speed steel

(c) Welded high speed steel or brazed cemented carbide

(d) Diamond tip with holder

a. Diamond b. Supportc. Holderd. Seal


Cutting tool and workpiece

  • Shank(b) Tool point(c) Cut face(d) Machined surface

  • (e) Clearance face(f) Top face(g) Wedge(h) Cutting edge


Angles of the cutting tool

) Clearance angle

) Wedge angle

) Rake angle

) Cutting angle


Checking of tool angles

Checking of the clearance angle

Checking of the wedge angle


Plan, nose and inclination angles of the turning tool

(a) Large plan angle (b) Small plan angle (c) Normal plan angle (45o)

) Plan angle

) Nose angle

R) Thrust against the axis of revolution

) Inclination angle


Type of cutting tools


Roughing Tools

a) Left-hand

b) Right-hand

c) Left-bent

d) Right-bent


Finishing Tools

a) Straight finishing tool

b) Wide face square nose finishing tool


Side Tools

a) Left-hand

b) Right-hand


Parting-off, Profile, Threading and Boring Tools

a)

Parting-off

tool

d)

Threading

tool

d)

Boring

tool

b) and c)

Profile

tool


Maintenance of turning tools

Wrong

Wright


Maintenance of turning tools

The following instructions have to be observed while grinding:

  • The grinding wheel should run against the cutting edge.

  • The feed pressure should not be too much.

  • In case of wet grinding plenty of coolant should be used.

  • Concave grinding of the clearance face should be avoided.

  • Cutting angles should be tested with the grinding gauge.

  • Grinding wheels, which are untrue running or greasy, should be dressed with a wheel dresser.

  • Safety precautions should be observed.


Clamping of cutting tools


Clamping of cutting tools

Stress on the cutting tool by the cutting force F

Tool post


Tool Holder Video

Tool Post Video

Clamping of cutting tools

Clamping Plate

Four-way tool post


Tool Setting 1

Tool Setting 2

Setting of cutting tools

(a) Tool above center line

(b) Tool on center line

(c) Tool below center line

Influence of setting the tool above or below the center line on the clearance and rake angles.


Setting of cutting tools

The cutting tool must be clamped as short as possible.


Turning operations(Video)


Thank you


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