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The Global Heat Budget. Air-sea exchanges of heat (& freshwater) create deep water masses & drive the conveyor belt Heat source into the ocean is solar radiation There are several heat loss terms latent, conduction, longwave radiation, reflected solar

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The Global Heat Budget

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The global heat budget l.jpg

The Global Heat Budget

  • Air-sea exchanges of heat (& freshwater) create deep water masses & drive the conveyor belt

  • Heat source into the ocean is solar radiation

  • There are several heat loss terms

    latent, conduction, longwave radiation, reflected solar

  • Ocean circulation moves heat (advection)


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Solar Radiation


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Solar Radiation


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The Heat Budget

Total heat flux (Qt) = Solar radiation (Qs)

- Latent heat loss (Qe)

- Conductive heat loss (Qh)

- Longwave radiation (Qb)

Qt = Qs - Qe - Qh - Qb


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Heat Loss Terms

  • Latent heat flux (Qe)

    • Energy required to evaporate water

    • Most important in tropics & midlatitudes

  • Conductive (or sensible) heat flux (Qh)

    • Loss to turbulent exchange with atmosphere

    • Typically small

  • Longwave radiation (Qb)

    • Net thermal IR emission from ocean


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Global Heat Budget


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Net Solar Radiation

Typical Jan

Tropics

200 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

100 W/m2

High-latitude

~10 W/m2


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Latent Heat Loss

Typical Jan

Tropics

120 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

100 W/m2

High-latitude

~20 W/m2


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Conductive Heat Loss

Typical Jan

Tropics

0-10 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

0-40 W/m2

High-latitude

0-30 W/m2


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Net Longwave Radiation

Typical Jan

Tropics

40-50 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

60-70 W/m2

High-latitude

30-50 W/m2


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Total Heat Flux

Typical Jan

Cool NH

Heat - SH

WBC’s

-200 W/m2

SH Subtropics

70 W/m2

NH Subtropics

> -80 W/m2


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Total Heat Flux

Typical July

Heat NH

Cool SH

NH Subtropics

100 W/m2

SH Subtropics

-40 W/m2


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Global Heat Budget


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Global Heat Transport


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Global Heat Transport

1015 W = 1 Petawatt


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Hydrographic Inverse Models

  • WOCE hydrographic sections are used to estimate global circulation & material transport

  • Mass, heat, salt & other properties are conserved

  • Air-sea exchanges & removal processes are considered

  • Provides estimates of basin scale circulation, heat & freshwater transports


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Global Heat Transport


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Global Heat Transport


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Global Heat Transport


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The Global Heat Budget

  • Heat source into the ocean is solar radiation

  • There are several heat loss terms

    latent, conduction, longwave radiation, reflected solar

  • Ocean circulation moves heat (advection)

  • Large scale heat budget can be closed by analyzing hydrographic sections


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