the global heat budget
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The Global Heat Budget. Air-sea exchanges of heat (& freshwater) create deep water masses & drive the conveyor belt Heat source into the ocean is solar radiation There are several heat loss terms latent, conduction, longwave radiation, reflected solar

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the global heat budget
The Global Heat Budget
  • Air-sea exchanges of heat (& freshwater) create deep water masses & drive the conveyor belt
  • Heat source into the ocean is solar radiation
  • There are several heat loss terms

latent, conduction, longwave radiation, reflected solar

  • Ocean circulation moves heat (advection)
the heat budget
The Heat Budget

Total heat flux (Qt) = Solar radiation (Qs)

- Latent heat loss (Qe)

- Conductive heat loss (Qh)

- Longwave radiation (Qb)

Qt = Qs - Qe - Qh - Qb

heat loss terms
Heat Loss Terms
  • Latent heat flux (Qe)
    • Energy required to evaporate water
    • Most important in tropics & midlatitudes
  • Conductive (or sensible) heat flux (Qh)
    • Loss to turbulent exchange with atmosphere
    • Typically small
  • Longwave radiation (Qb)
    • Net thermal IR emission from ocean
net solar radiation
Net Solar Radiation

Typical Jan

Tropics

200 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

100 W/m2

High-latitude

~10 W/m2

latent heat loss
Latent Heat Loss

Typical Jan

Tropics

120 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

100 W/m2

High-latitude

~20 W/m2

conductive heat loss
Conductive Heat Loss

Typical Jan

Tropics

0-10 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

0-40 W/m2

High-latitude

0-30 W/m2

net longwave radiation
Net Longwave Radiation

Typical Jan

Tropics

40-50 W/m2

Mid-latitudes

60-70 W/m2

High-latitude

30-50 W/m2

total heat flux
Total Heat Flux

Typical Jan

Cool NH

Heat - SH

WBC’s

-200 W/m2

SH Subtropics

70 W/m2

NH Subtropics

> -80 W/m2

total heat flux12
Total Heat Flux

Typical July

Heat NH

Cool SH

NH Subtropics

100 W/m2

SH Subtropics

-40 W/m2

global heat transport15
Global Heat Transport

1015 W = 1 Petawatt

hydrographic inverse models
Hydrographic Inverse Models
  • WOCE hydrographic sections are used to estimate global circulation & material transport
  • Mass, heat, salt & other properties are conserved
  • Air-sea exchanges & removal processes are considered
  • Provides estimates of basin scale circulation, heat & freshwater transports
the global heat budget20
The Global Heat Budget
  • Heat source into the ocean is solar radiation
  • There are several heat loss terms

latent, conduction, longwave radiation, reflected solar

  • Ocean circulation moves heat (advection)
  • Large scale heat budget can be closed by analyzing hydrographic sections
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