Body composition
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Body Composition. What is body composition?. The ratio of lean body mass to body fat Generally this is a topic many physical educators try to avoid

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Body Composition

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Body composition

Body Composition


What is body composition

What is body composition?

  • The ratio of lean body mass to body fat

  • Generally this is a topic many physical educators try to avoid

  • Although “exact” figures for % fat may not be necessary, it is important for students to understand the relationship of physical activity to body comp


Adolescent body fat

Adolescent Body Fat

  • Males: min. = 10%, max = 25%

  • Females: min = 17%, max = 32%


Definitions of overweight based on ht wt tables

Definitions of Overweight:(Based on ht /wt tables)

  • Moderately Overweight

    • 20% over desirable body weight

  • Severely overweight

    • 40% over desirable body weight

Burton, Foster, Hirsch, and Van Itallie, Health implications of obesity: An NIH consensus development conference. Int J. Obesity, 9, 155-169, 1985.

Problem: Ht/Wt tables do not take muscles mass into account


Obesity

Obesity

  • 120 percent of ideal body weight or greater


Overweight and obesity new mexico

Overweight and Obesity:New Mexico

  • 58% of New Mexico adults are overweight or obese. (CDC BRFSS, 2004)

  • 18% of non-Hispanic white adults and 25% of Hispanic adults in New Mexico are obese. (CDC BRFSS, 2004)


Overweight and obesity new mexico1

Overweight and Obesity:New Mexico

  • 24% of New Mexico high-school students are overweight or at risk of becoming overweight. (NM YRRS, 2003)

  • 22% of low-income children between 2 and 5 years of age in New Mexico are overweight or at risk of becoming overweight. (CDC PedNSS, 2002)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1990

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1990

No Data <10% 10%–14%

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 1996

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19%

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 1996

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2001

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2001

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Obesity trends among u s adults brfss 2004

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS, 2004

(*BMI ≥30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight for 5’ 4” person)

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% ≥25%


Body composition

Possible factors for overweight/obesity

Inactivity

Cultural differences

Genetics

Contentment with body weight

Fast food

TV time

Eating disorders


Relate to other hr components

Relate to other HR components

  • MS & E: muscles cells burn more calories at rest than fat calories

  • Aerobic: raise BMR and burns calories; more effective than MS & E training

  • Flexibility: less prone to injury when doing aerobic activity and strength and endurance training

  • Aerobics + resistance= best management


Body composition assessment

Body Composition Assessment


Body comp tests

Skinfold calipers

Tricep

Calf

Body Mass Index

Under 25 considered safe

=wt(kg)/ht2(m2)

Waist to hip ratio

Above .86 females

Above .95 men

Indicate higher risks

Apples rather than pears

Ht-wt charts

Body Comp Tests


Skinfold technique

Skinfold Technique

Subcutaneous

Fat

Layers of subcutaneous fat are measured at different sites of body

to estimate total body fat levels

Skin

Skinfold

Thickness

Skin

Subcutaneous Fat


Benefits of skinfold technique

Benefits of Skinfold Technique

  • Fairly accurate

  • Easy to perform

  • Inexpensive

  • Skinfold Sites for Children: tricep & calf

    • Not as “invasive” as adult sites


Body composition assessment implications of results

Body Composition AssessmentImplications of Results

  • Values are estimates (+/- 2-3% at best)

  • Values are personal and confidential

    Proper uses of results:

    - Serve as baseline data for repeated testing

    - Provide motivation for goal setting

    - Provide awareness about health risks


Body composition

BMI

  • BMI = weight in pounds

    Ht in inches x ht in inches x 703

    Advantages:

    • Takes little class time

      Disadvantage:

    • BMI is age and gender specific

    • Over-simplifies body composition


Bmi chart for children

BMI Chart for children

Underweight: BMI-for-age < 5th percentile  

Less than 18.5

Normal: BMI-for-age 5th percentile to < 85th percentile

18.5-22

At risk of overweight: BMI-for-age 85th percentile to

< 95th percentile  

22-25

Overweight: BMI-for-age > 95th percentile

25.1-29.9


Class activity

Class Activity

  • Since body composition is a private matter, what would you want your students to know about this component of fitness and how would you teach it with sensitivity?


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