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Network-on-Chip. Energy-Efficient Design Techniques for Interconnects Suhail Basit. NoC. Micro-network Components (Resources) Interconnects (Switches) Differences from WAN Local proximity of components Less non-determinism Mesh Topology. NoC Design. Power consumption

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Network on chip

Network-on-Chip

Energy-Efficient Design Techniques for Interconnects

Suhail Basit


NoC

  • Micro-network

    • Components

      (Resources)

    • Interconnects

      (Switches)

  • Differences from WAN

    • Local proximity of components

    • Less non-determinism

      Mesh Topology

Suhail Basit


Noc design
NoC Design

  • Power consumption

    • Voltage scaling helps

  • Computation and storage energy

    • Device scaling helps

  • Communication energy

    • Needs extra effort

    • Netwrok traffic monitoring and control

      • Clock speed of components according to available bandwidth

  • Design-time specialization

    • Designing of communication network fabric on silicon from scratch

    • Standardization of end nodes only

    • Tailored netwrok architecture according to the application

Suhail Basit


Interconnect design
Interconnect Design

  • Implementation of micro-network stack

    • Physical layer

      • Data transfer

      • Synchronization

    • Data-link layer

      • Error handling

    • Network layer

      • Network architecture

      • Network control

    • Transport layer

      • Network resources

      • QoS

    • System layer

      • Power management

    • Application Layer

      • Distributivity

      • Portability

Suhail Basit


Physical layer design
Physical Layer Design

  • Low swing signaling at transmitter

    • Reduction in Vdd

    • Less reliable data reception

    • Differential receivers

  • Pseudo-differential signaling at receiver

    • Reference signal sharing

    • Less signal transitions

    • Reduced noise margin

  • Synchronization

    • Clocks are extremely energy-inefficient

    • Global synchronization is not optimal

    • GALS units are a possible solution

Suhail Basit


Data link layer design
Data-link Layer Design

  • Error detection

    • Retransmission of data in case of error

    • Can be costly in energy and performance

  • Error correction

    • More redundant and complex in decoding

    • More power-hungry in error-free case

  • Optimal choice

    • System constraints

    • Physical channel characteristics

Suhail Basit


Network layer design
Network Layer Design

  • Hierarchical and heterogeneous architecture

    • Nodes with high bandwidth requirement are clustered and connected together through short channels

    • Clusters are connected through global channels

    • Small energy cost of intera-cluster communication than inter-cluster communication

  • Circuit switching

    • Network control overhead incurrs only once

    • Best in case of persistent communication

  • Packet switching

    • Distributed network control overhead

    • More energy-efficient for irregular communication

Suhail Basit


Transport layer design
Transport Layer Design

  • Connection-oriented protocol

    • Energy inefficient under heavy traffic due to retransmissions

  • Connection-less protocol

    • Additional work at receiver due to out-of-order delivery of data

  • Flow control

    • Network congestion increases cost per transmitted bit due to contention resolution overhead

    • The amount of data that enters the network, can be regulated, at the price of throughput

Suhail Basit


System layer design
System Layer Design

  • Node-centric power management

    • System software of each component has its own dynamic power management (DPM) policy

    • Component changes state based on system state and workload (obtained by system calls)

  • Network-centric power management

    • Components request neighbors for a state change

    • Requests originate and are serviced at system software level

Suhail Basit


Application layer design
Application Layer Design

  • Distributivity and Portability

    • Power-aware application programming interfaces (APIs) for communication between application and system software

      • Information about platform

      • Setting the component in specific power state

Suhail Basit


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Challenges of upcoming technologies

    • Design complexity

    • Reliable and high performance operation

    • Energy consumption

  • Interconnects are the limiting factor

    • Energy-efficient and communication-centric designs

  • Some problems were presented

    • Basic strategies have been outlined

    • Need to be explored further

Suhail Basit


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