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History Alive. Chapter 21 Three Chinese Philosophies. Key Terms Mandate of Heaven A power or law believed to be granted by a god Feudalism A system of government based on landowners and tenants Zhou dynasty

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History Alive

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History alive

History Alive

Chapter 21

Three Chinese Philosophies


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Key Terms

Mandate of Heaven

A power or law believed to be granted by a god

Feudalism

A system of government based on landowners and tenants

Zhou dynasty

Lasted from 1045 to 256 B.C.E. In later years different leaders fought for control of China. The country was thrown into disorder. Three philosophies emerged about the best way t have peace and order in society.

Yin and yang

Opposite forced in nature such as life and death. True harmony came from balancing these forces.


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The Chinese Feudal System

King

Lords

Peasants

What group belongs in the box at the bottom of this diagram?


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Shang Dynasty.

claimed to have a mandate from heaven.


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Was likely written over time by many writers (p. 210)

Must treat those below well and set a good example

People are naturally selfish.

Because of this strict laws are needed and punishments for breaking laws must be harsh.

Civil servants should be monitored closely and punished if they do a bad job.


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Confucianism

Civil servants were hired on the bases of ability and had to pass tests.

Values such as respect for elders, proper behavior and love of scholarship became part of Chinese culture.

All people must respect and obey those above them. Those with authority should set a good example.

A just and peaceful society


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Daoism

Happiness and peace were gained by living in harmony with nature.

Rulers were encouraged to rule less harshly. Influenced Chinese thought, writing and art. Daoism developed into a popular religion.

Simple and natural living.


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Legalism

The Qin dynasty used legalist ideas to build a strong central government and well-organized society.

Rulers should establish strict laws with rewards for good behavior and harsh punishment for bad behavior.

Peace and order in society


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